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์›Œ์‹ฑํ„ดDC๊ณผ ๋‰ด์š• ์›”์ŠคํŠธ๋ฆฌํŠธ

์›Œ์‹ฑํ„ดDC๊ณผ ๋‰ด์š• ์›”์ŠคํŠธ๋ฆฌํŠธ

๊ธฐ์‚ฌ์ž…๋ ฅย 2013.07.03 11:52:25
๋‹ค ์•„๋Š” ์ƒ์‹์ ์ธ ์–˜๊ธฐ๋‹ค. ๋ฏธ๊ตญ์˜ ์ˆ˜๋„๋Š” ์›Œ์‹ฑํ„ดDC์ด ๋ถ„๋ช…ํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ ๊ฒฝ์ œ์™€ ๋ฌธํ™”๋ถ„์•ผ์—์„œ๋Š” ๋‰ด์š•์ด ์‚ฌ์‹ค์ƒ์˜ ์ˆ˜๋„ ์—ญํ• ์„ ํ•œ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋ž˜์„œ ์›Œ์‹ฑํ„ดDC๋ฅผ ์†Œ๊ฐœํ•˜๋Š” ๊ธ€์—๋Š” `๋ฏธ๊ตญ์˜ ์ˆ˜๋„`๋ผ๋Š” ๋ง ์™ธ์— `์ •์น˜์™€ ์™ธ๊ต, ํ–‰์ •์˜ ์ค‘์‹ฌ์ง€`๋ผ๋Š” ๋ง์ด ์ž์ฃผ ๋”ฐ๋ผ๋ถ™๋Š”๋‹ค.

ํŠนํŒŒ์›์œผ๋กœ์„œ ์›Œ์‹ฑํ„ดDC์—์„œ ์ทจ์žฌ๋ฅผ ํ•˜๋‹ค๋ณด๋ฉด ๋งค์ผ ์‹ค๊ฐํ•˜๋Š” ํ˜„์‹ค์ด๊ธฐ๋„ ํ•˜๋‹ค. ์›Œ์‹ฑํ„ดDC์—์„œ๋Š” ๊ฒฝ์ œ๋ฅผ ์ด์•ผ๊ธฐํ•˜๋Š” ์‚ฌ๋žŒ์„ ๋งŒ๋‚˜๊ธฐ ์–ด๋ ต๋‹ค. ์ด๊ณณ์˜ ์ตœ์šฐ์„  ๊ด€์‹ฌ์‚ฌ๋Š” ์–ธ์ œ๋‚˜ ์ •์น˜์™€ ์™ธ๊ต๋‹ค.

์‹ฑํฌํƒฑํฌ์™€ ๋กœ๋น„์ŠคํŠธ๋“ค์˜ ์ฃผ๋ฌด๋Œ€์ธ `K ์ŠคํŠธ๋ฆฌํŠธ`์˜ ๋ถ„์œ„๊ธฐ๊ฐ€ ๋”ฑ ๊ทธ๋ ‡๋‹ค. ์–ด์ฉŒ๋‹ค ์„ธ๋ฏธ๋‚˜ ๋“ฑ์—์„œ ๊ฒฝ์ œ๋ฌธ์ œ๊ฐ€ ํ™”์ œ์— ์˜ค๋ฅด๋”๋ผ๋„ ์„ธ๊ธˆ๊ณผ ์˜ˆ์‚ฐ, ํ†ต์ƒ๋ฌธ์ œ์— ๊ตญํ•œ๋˜๊ธฐ ์ผ์‘ค๋‹ค.

๋Œ€ํ•™ ๊ต์ˆ˜๋“ค๋„ ๋งˆ์ฐฌ๊ฐ€์ง€๋‹ค. ๋ฏธ๊ตญ ๋™๋ถ€์˜ ์œ ๋ช…ํ•œ ๊ฒฝ์ œํ•™ ๊ต์ˆ˜๋“ค์€ ์ถœ์‹ ํ•™๊ต๋ฅผ ๋ถˆ๋ฌธํ•˜๊ณ  ๋‰ด์š•์„ ์ค‘์‹ฌ์œผ๋กœ ํ™œ๋™ํ•˜๊ณ , ์ •์น˜ํ•™๊ณผ ์™ธ๊ตํ•™์„ ์ „๊ณตํ•œ ๊ต์ˆ˜๋“ค์€ ์›Œ์‹ฑํ„ดDC์—์„œ ๋ชฉ์†Œ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ๋†’์ธ๋‹ค.

๋ฌผ๋ก  ์ƒํ•˜์› ์˜์›๋“ค์€ ์ž๊ธฐ ์ง€์—ญ๊ตฌ์˜ ๊ฒฝ์ œ๋ฌธ์ œ์— ๊ด€์‹ฌ์„ ๋‘˜ ์ˆ˜ ๋ฐ–์— ์—†๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋‚˜ ๊ณต์žฅ์„ ์œ ์น˜ํ•˜๊ฑฐ๋‚˜ ์—ฐ๋ฐฉ์˜ˆ์‚ฐ์„ ํ•œ ํ‘ผ์ด๋ผ๋„ ๋” ๋ฐฐ๋ถ„๋ฐ›๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์— ๊ด€์‹ฌ์ด ์žˆ์„ ๋ฟ์ด๋‹ค. ๊ตญ์ œ๊ฒฝ์ œ๋Š” ๋งํ•  ๊ฒƒ๋„ ์—†๊ณ , ๊ฑฐ์‹œ๊ฒฝ์ œ ๋ฌธ์ œ๋Š” ์ข€์ฒ˜๋Ÿผ ์ž…์— ์˜ฌ๋ฆฌ์ง€ ์•Š๋Š”๋‹ค. ์™ธ๊ตญ์ธ์˜ ์‹œ๊ฐ์—์„œ๋Š” `์ •์น˜๋Š” ์›Œ์‹ฑํ„ดDC, ๊ฒฝ์ œ๋Š” ๋‰ด์š•`์ด ์ดํ† ๋ก ์ฒ ์ €ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๊ตฌ๋ถ„๋  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋Š”์ง€๊ฐ€ ์‹ ๊ธฐํ•ด๋ณด์ผ ์ •๋„๋‹ค.

๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋‚˜ ์›Œ์‹ฑํ„ด ์ƒํ™œ์ด ๊ธธ์–ด์ง€๋ฉด ์ž์—ฐ์Šค๋Ÿฝ๊ฒŒ ๋˜๋‹ค๋ฅธ ๊นจ๋‹ฌ์Œ์„ ์–ป๊ฒŒ ๋œ๋‹ค. ์›Œ์‹ฑํ„ดDC์™€ ๋‰ด์š•์ด ์ ˆ๋ฌ˜ํ•œ ๊ท ํ˜•์„ ์ด๋ฃจ๋ฉฐ ๋ฏธ๊ตญ ๊ฒฝ์ œ๋ฅผ ์ด๋Œ์–ด๊ฐ€๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค๋Š” ์‚ฌ์‹ค์ด๋‹ค. ์—ญ์‹œ ๋ˆˆ์— ๋ณด์ด๋Š” ๊ฒŒ ์ „๋ถ€๊ฐ€ ์•„๋‹Œ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค.

๋ฏธ๊ตญ์„ ๋น„๋กฏํ•ด ์ „์„ธ๊ณ„ ๊ธˆ์œต์„ ์ขŒ์ง€์šฐ์ง€ํ•˜๋Š” ๊ณณ์€ ๋‰ด์š•์˜ ์›”์ŠคํŠธ๋ฆฌํŠธ๋‹ค. 2ใŽž ๋‚จ์ง“ํ•œ ์ด ๊ฑฐ๋ฆฌ์— ์„ธ๊ณ„ ์œ ์ˆ˜์˜ ์€ํ–‰, ์ฆ๊ถŒ์‚ฌ๊ฐ€ ๋ฐ€์ง‘ํ•ด ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์ด๊ณณ์—์„œ ์น˜์—ดํ•œ ์‹œ์žฅํ‰๊ฐ€์™€ ์ •๋ณด๊ตํ™˜์ด ์ด๋ค„์ง€๊ฒŒ ๋œ๋‹ค. ๊ธ€๋กœ๋ฒŒ ์ž๋ณธ์˜ ํ๋ฆ„์ด ๊ฒฐํŒ๋‚œ๋‹ค๊ณ  ํ•ด๋„ ๊ณผ์–ธ์ด ์•„๋‹ˆ๋‹ค.

์„ธ๊ณ„๊ฒฝ์ œ๊ฐ€ ๊ธ€๋กœ๋ฒŒ ๊ธˆ์œต์œ„๊ธฐ์˜ ๋‚˜๋ฝ์—์„œ ํ—ˆ์šฐ์  ๊ฑฐ๋ ธ๋˜ 2008๋…„ 10์›” ์›”์ŠคํŠธ๋ฆฌํŠธ๋ฅผ ๋ฐฉ๋ฌธํ•œ ์ ์ด ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๊ธˆ์œต์‚ฌ๋งˆ๋‹ค ๋ฌด๋”๊ธฐ ํ•ด๊ณ  ๋ฐœํ‘œ๊ฐ€ ์—ฐ์ผ ์ด์–ด์ง€๋˜ ๋•Œ์ธ ๋งŒํผ ๋ถ„์œ„๊ธฐ๋Š” ํ™ฉ๋Ÿ‰ํ•จ ๊ทธ ์ž์ฒด์˜€๋‹ค. ์•„์ง๋„ ๊ธฐ์–ต์— ๋‚จ๋Š” ์žฅ๋ฉด์€ ๊ทธ ์™€์ค‘์—๋„ ํ–‰์ธ ์—ด๋ช… ๊ฐ€์šด๋ฐ ์•„ํ™‰์ด ํ—ˆ๋ฆฌ์— ์ฐฌ ๋ธ”๋ž™๋ฒ ๋ฆฌ๋กœ ๋Š์ž„์—†์ด ์ด๋ฉ”์ผ์„ ์ฒดํฌํ•˜๋Š” ๋ชจ์Šต์ด๋‹ค. ๊ธˆ์œต์‹œ์žฅ์ด ํ™œํ™ฉ์ผ ๋•Œ๋‚˜, ๋ถˆํ™ฉ์ผ ๋•Œ๋‚˜ ์›”์ŠคํŠธ๋ฆฌํŠธ๋Š” ๊ด‘์†(ๅ…‰้€Ÿ)์œผ๋กœ ์ •๋ณด๋ฅผ ์œ ํ†ต์‹œํ‚ค๋ฉฐ ๋Š˜ ๊นจ์–ด ์—ˆ์—ˆ๋‹ค.

์ด์ฒ˜๋Ÿผ ๋ฐ”์ง€๋Ÿฐํ•œ ์›”์ŠคํŠธ๋ฆฌํŠธ๋„`์ฒœ์ (ๅคฉๆ•ต)`์ด ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๋ฐ”๋กœ `์ •์น˜์˜ ๋„์‹œ` ์›Œ์‹ฑํ„ดDC๋‹ค. ์›Œ์‹ฑํ„ดDC์—๋Š” ์›”์ŠคํŠธ๋ฆฌํŠธ๋ฅผ ๊ฒฌ์ œํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋Š” ํž˜ ์Žˆ ๊ธฐ๊ด€๋“ค์ด ํฌ์ง„ํ•ด์žˆ๋‹ค. ๋ฏธ๊ตญ ์—ฐ๋ฐฉ์ค€๋น„์ œ๋„์ด์‚ฌํšŒ(Fed)์™€ ๋ฏธ๊ตญ ์žฌ๋ฌด๋ถ€, ๋ฏธ๊ตญ ์—ฐ๋ฐฉ์˜ˆ๊ธˆ๋ณดํ—˜๊ณต์‚ฌ(FDIC) ๋“ฑ์ด ๊ทธ๋Ÿฐ ๊ณณ๋“ค์ด๋‹ค. ์ด๋“ค์ด ๋ง˜ ๋จน๊ณ  ๋‚˜์„œ๋ฉด ๋ง‰๊ฐ•ํ•œ ์›” ์ŠคํŠธ๋ฆฌํŠธ๋„ ์–ด์ฉ” ์ˆ˜ ์—†์ด ๊ผฌ๋ฆฌ๋ฅผ ๋‚ด๋ ค์•ผ ํ•œ๋‹ค. ๊ตณ์ด ํŒŒ์›Œ์˜ ์šฐ์›”์„ ๋”ฐ์ง„๋‹ค๋ฉด ๊ธˆ์œต์ •์ฑ… ์ˆ˜๋ฆฝ๊ถŒํ•œ๊ณผ ๊ฐ๋…๊ถŒํ•œ์„ ์›Œ์‹ฑํ„ดDC๊ฐ€ ์›” ์ŠคํŠธ๋ฆฌํŠธ๋ณด๋‹ค ํ•œ ์ˆ˜ ์œ„๋ผ๋Š” ํ‰๊ฐ€๊ฐ€ ์ง€๋ฐฐ์ ์ด๋‹ค. ๊ฒŒ๋‹ค๊ฐ€ ์ด๋Ÿฐ ํ˜„์ƒ์€ 2008๋…„ ๋ฆฌ๋งŒ ๋ธŒ๋ผ๋”์Šค ์‚ฌํƒœ ์ดํ›„ ๋”์šฑ ๋‘๋“œ๋Ÿฌ์ง€๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์‹ฌ์ง€์–ด ์–ผ๋งˆ์ „ ์ธํ„ฐ๋ทฐ๋ฅผ ์œ„ํ•ด ๋งŒ๋‚œ ๋ฏธ๊ตญ์ธ ๊ต์ˆ˜๋Š” “๋ฆฌ๋งŒ ๋ธŒ๋ผ๋”์Šค ์‚ฌํƒœ์ดํ›„ ๋ฏธ๊ตญ์˜ ๊ธˆ์œต๊ถŒ๋ ฅ์€ ๋‰ด์š•์—์„œ ์›Œ์‹ฑํ„ดDC๋กœ ์™„์ „ํžˆ ๋„˜์–ด์™”๋‹ค”๊ณ  ๋‹จ์–ธํ•˜๊ธฐ๋„ ํ–ˆ๋‹ค.

๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋‚˜ ๋ฏธ๊ตญ์—์„  ์ธ์‚ฌ์™€ ์ž๊ธˆ์šด์šฉ์— ๊ฐ„์—ฌํ•˜๋Š” ํ•œ๊ตญ์‹ `๊ด€์น˜(ๅฎ˜ๆฒป)`๊ธˆ์œต์€ ์—†๋‹ค. ๋”ฐ๋ผ์„œ `์›Œ์‹ฑํ„ดDC์€ ๊ฐ‘(็”ฒ), ๋‰ด์š• ์›”์ŠคํŠธ๋ฆฌํŠธ๋Š” ์„(ไน™)`์ด๋ผ๋Š” ๋“ฑ์‹์€ ํ†ตํ•˜์ง€ ์•Š๋Š”๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋ณด๋‹ค๋Š” ์›”์ŠคํŠธ๋ฆฌํŠธ์˜ ํญ์ฃผ๋‚˜ ํ˜ธ๋“ค๊ฐ‘์„ ์ ์ ˆํ•œ ์„ ์—์„œ ๊ด€๋ฆฌํ•˜๋Š” ์—ญํ• ์„ ์›Œ์‹ฑํ„ดDC๊ฐ€ ๋งก๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค๊ณ  ๋ณด๋ฉด ๋œ๋‹ค.

์–ผ๋งˆ์ „ ๋ฒค ๋ฒ„๋ƒ‰ํ‚ค ๋ฏธ๊ตญ์—ฐ๋ฐฉ์ค€๋น„์ œ๋„์ด์‚ฌํšŒ(Fed) ์˜์žฅ์ด ์–‘์ ์™„ํ™” ์ถ•์†Œ ๋ฐœ์–ธ์„ ํ–ˆ์„ ๋•Œ๋„ ๋‰ด์š• ์›”์ŠคํŠธ๋ฆฌํŠธ์™€ ์›Œ์‹ฑํ„ดDC์˜ ๋ฐ˜์‘์€ ๊ทน๋ช…ํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ์ฃผ๊ฐ€,๊ธˆ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ์ถœ๋ ์ด๋ฉฐ ์›”์ŠคํŠธ๋ฆฌํŠธ๊ฐ€ ์š”๋™์„ ์ณค์ง€๋งŒ ์›Œ์‹ฑํ„ดDC์— ์ž๋ฆฌ์žก์€ ์—ฐ์ค€์€ ๋ˆˆ ํ•˜๋‚˜ ๊นœ์งํ•˜์ง€ ์•Š์•˜๋‹ค. ์›”์ŠคํŠธ๋ฆฌํŠธ์˜ ๋น„๋ช… ์†Œ๋ฆฌ์ฏค์€ ๊ฐ„๋‹จํžˆ ๋ฌด์‹œํ•ด๋ฒ„๋ฆฐ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค.

์—ฐ์ค€ ๋ฟ๋งŒ์ด ์•„๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ์ž‘๋…„ ๋ง์—์„œ ์˜ฌํ•ด์ดˆ๊นŒ์ง€ ์ด์–ด์ง„ `์žฌ์ •์ ˆ๋ฒฝ(์„ธ๊ธˆ๊ฐ๋ฉด๊ณผ ์ •๋ถ€์ง€์ถœ์ด ๊ธ‰์†ํžˆ ์ค„์–ด๋“ค๋ฉด์„œ ๊ฒฝ๊ธฐ๋ฅผ ๊ธ‰์†ํžˆ ์œ„์ถ•์‹œํ‚ค๋Š” ํ˜„์ƒ)` ํŒŒ๋™ ๋•Œ์—๋„ ์›Œ์‹ฑํ„ดDC์—์„  `์›”์ŠคํŠธ๋ฆฌํŠธ์˜ ํ˜ธ๋“ค๊ฐ‘์— ํœ˜๋‘˜๋ฆด ํ•„์š” ์—†๋‹ค`๋Š” ๋ถ„์œ„๊ธฐ๊ฐ€ ๋งŒ๋งŒ์น˜ ์•Š์•˜๋‹ค. ๋ฏธ๊ตญ ๊ณตํ™”๋‹น์ด ๋ฐฐ์งฑ์„ ํŠ•๊ธฐ๋ฉฐ ๋ฒ„๋ฝ ์˜ค๋ฐ”๋งˆ ๋Œ€ํ†ต๋ น๊ณผ ๊ณตํ™”๋‹น์œผ๋กœ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ ์ƒ๋‹นํ•œ ์ •์น˜์  ์–‘๋ณด๋ฅผ ์–ป์–ด๋‚ธ๋ฐ๋Š” ์ด๋Ÿฐ ์ •์„œ๊ฐ€ ์ƒ๋‹นํ•œ ์—ญํ• ์„ ํ–ˆ๋‹ค.

์ง€๋‚œ 3์›” 1์ผ ์‹œํ€˜์Šคํ„ฐ(sequester. ๋ฏธ๊ตญ ์—ฐ๋ฐฉ์ •๋ถ€์˜ ์ž๋™ ์˜ˆ์‚ฐ ์‚ญ๊ฐ)๊ฐ€ ๋ฐœ๋™๋  ๋•Œ์—๋„ ๋น„์Šทํ•œ ์ผ์ด ๋ฒŒ์–ด์กŒ๋‹ค. ์›”์ŠคํŠธ๋ฆฌํŠธ๋Š” ์‹œํ€˜์Šคํ„ฐ๋กœ ๋ฏธ๊ตญ ๊ฒฝ๊ธฐ๊ฐ€ ๊ธ‰๋ƒ‰ํ•  ๊ฒƒ์„ ๊ฑฑ์ •ํ–ˆ์ง€๋งŒ ์›Œ์‹ฑํ„ดDC์—์„  `ํฐ ์ผ์ด์•ผ ๋ฒŒ์–ด์ง€๊ฒ ๋Š๋ƒ`๋Š” ๊ธฐ๋ฅ˜๊ฐ€ ๊ฐ•ํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ์‹ค์ œ๋กœ ์‹œํ€˜์Šคํ„ฐ๊ฐ€ ๋ฏธ๊ตญ ๊ฒฝ์ œ์— ๋ผ์นœ ์•…์˜ํ–ฅ์€ ๋ฏธ๋ฏธํ•œ ์ˆ˜์ค€์— ๊ทธ์น˜๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค.

์‚ฌ์‹ค ์›Œ์‹ฑํ„ดDC๋ผ๋Š” ๋„์‹œ๋Š” ๊ทธ ํƒœ์ƒ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ๊ฐ€ ๋‰ด์š•์„ ๊ฒฌ์ œํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•œ `์ •์น˜์  ํƒ€ํ˜‘`์˜ ์‚ฐ๋ฌผ์ด์—ˆ๋‹ค. ์›๋ž˜ ๋ฏธ๊ตญ ์ตœ์ดˆ์˜ ์ˆ˜๋„๋Š” ๋‰ด์š•์ด์—ˆ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋‚˜ ๋ฏธ๊ตญ์ด ์—ฐ๋ฐฉ์ •๋ถ€์˜ ๊ธฐํ‹€์„ ์žก์•„๊ฐ€๋Š” ๊ณผ์ •์—์„œ ๋ฏธํ•ฉ์ค‘๊ตญ์˜ ์ˆ˜๋„๊ฐ€ ์›Œ์‹ฑํ„ดDC๋กœ ๋ฐ”๋€Œ๊ฒŒ ๋œ๋‹ค.

1789๋…„ ์ดˆ๋Œ€ ๋Œ€ํ†ต๋ น์œผ๋กœ ์„ ์ถœ๋œ ์กฐ์ง€ ์›Œ์‹ฑํ„ด์€ ์›Œ์‹ฑํ„ดDC๋ฅผ ์ƒˆ ๋„์์ง€๋กœ ์ •ํ•จ์œผ๋กœ์จ ๋‹น์‹œ ์‚ฌ์ด๊ฐ€ ๋‚˜๋นด๋˜ ๋ถ๋ถ€์™€ ๋‚จ๋ถ€๋ฅผ ์ž์—ฐ์Šค๋Ÿฝ๊ฒŒ ์•„์šฐ๋ฅผ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ์—ˆ๋‹ค. ๋ถ์ชฝ์˜ ๋ฉ”๋ฆฐ๋žœ๋“œ์ฃผ์™€ ๋‚จ์ชฝ์˜ ๋ฒ„์ง€์ง€์•„๊ฐ€ ๋งŒ๋‚˜๋Š” ์ง€์—ญ์„ ์ƒˆ๋กœ์šด ์ˆ˜๋„๋กœ ์ •ํ•จ์œผ๋กœ์จ ๋‰ด์š•์„ ๋ผ๊ณ  ์žˆ๋Š” ๋ถ๋ถ€์— ํž˜์ด ์ ๋ฆด ๊ฒƒ์ด๋ผ๋Š” ๋‚จ๋ถ€์˜ ์šฐ๋ ค๋ฅผ ์ž ์žฌ์šด ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค.

์›Œ์‹ฑํ„ดDC์™€ ๋‰ด์š•. ๋ณด๋ฉด ๋ณผ์ˆ˜๋ก ์ ˆ๋ฌ˜ํ•œ ๊ถํ•ฉ์ด๋‹ค.

[์ด์ง„์šฐ ๊ธฐ์ž]

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์†Œํ”„ํŠธ์›จ์–ด๋Š” ์„ธ์ƒ์˜ ๋ฌธ์ œ๋ฅผ ํ‘ธ๋Š” ์—ด์‡ 

<โ€œ์†Œํ”„ํŠธ์›จ์–ด๋Š” ์„ธ์ƒ์˜ ๋ฌธ์ œ๋ฅผ ํ‘ธ๋Š” ์—ด์‡ โ€>

์ปคํฌ ์Šคํ… ์ด๋งค์ง„์ปต ์šด์˜์ž ๊ฒธ MS ํ”Œ๋žซํผ ์‚ฌ์—… ์ด๊ด„

(์ƒํŠธํŽ˜ํ…Œ๋ฅด๋ถ€๋ฅดํฌ=์—ฐํ•ฉ๋‰ด์Šค) ์˜ค์˜ˆ์ง„ ๊ธฐ์ž = โ€œ์†Œํ”„ํŠธ์›จ์–ด๋Š” ์„ธ์ƒ์„ ๋ณ€ํ™”์‹œํ‚ค๋Š” ์—ด์‡ ์ž…๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ์ƒ์ƒ์„ ํ˜„์‹ค๋กœ ๋งŒ๋“ค๋ฉด ๋งŽ์€ ๋ฌธ์ œ๋ฅผ ํ•ด๊ฒฐํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ์ฃ .โ€

โ€˜์†Œํ”„ํŠธ์›จ์–ดโ€™๋Š” ํ˜„๋Œ€์ธ์—๊ฒŒ ์นœ์ˆ™ํ•˜๋ฉด์„œ๋„ ๋‚ฏ์„  ์กด์žฌ๋‹ค. ์ผ์„ ํ•  ๋•Œ๋‚˜ ์—ฌ๊ฐ€๋ฅผ ์ฆ๊ธธ ๋•Œ ์—†์–ด์„œ๋Š” ์•ˆ ๋  ๋„๊ตฌ์ง€๋งŒ ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์„ ์ง์ ‘ ๋งŒ๋“ค์–ด ํƒ€์ธ์„ ์œ„ํ•ด ์“ฐ์ด๋„๋ก ํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์€ ์•„์ง ์ „๋ฌธ๊ฐ€์˜ ์˜์—ญ์œผ๋กœ ์ทจ๊ธ‰๋˜๋Š” ๊ฒŒ ํ˜„์‹ค์ด๋‹ค.

๋งˆ์ดํฌ๋กœ์†Œํ”„ํŠธ(MS)๋Š” ์†Œํ”„ํŠธ์›จ์–ด์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ์ผ๋ฐ˜์ธ๋“ค์˜ ์ด๊ฐ™์€ ํŽธ๊ฒฌ์„ ๊นจ๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•ด ๋งค๋…„ ์„ธ๊ณ„ ์ตœ๋Œ€๊ทœ๋ชจ์˜ IT๊ฒฝ์ง„๋Œ€ํšŒ์ธ ์ด๋งค์ง„์ปต ๋Œ€ํšŒ๋ฅผ ๊ฐœ์ตœํ•˜๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์˜ฌํ•ด ์ด๋งค์ง„์ปต ๋Œ€ํšŒ๊ฐ€ ์—ด๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ์žˆ๋Š” ๋Ÿฌ์‹œ์•„ ์ƒํŠธํŽ˜ํ…Œ๋ฅด๋ถ€๋ฅดํฌ์—์„œ 11์ผ(ํ˜„์ง€์‹œ๊ฐ„) ๋งŒ๋‚œ ์ปคํŠธ ์Šคํ…(Kurt Steck) MS ํ”Œ๋žซํผ ์‚ฌ์—… ํ™๋ณดยท์˜์—… ์ด๊ด„์€ ์†Œํ”„ํŠธ์›จ์–ด์˜ ์ค‘์š”์„ฑ์„ ๋ˆ„์ฐจ ๊ฐ•์กฐํ–ˆ๋‹ค.

๊ทธ๋Š” ๋จผ์ € โ€œ์ด๋งค์ง„์ปต์€ ์†Œํ”„ํŠธ์›จ์–ด ๊ฐœ๋ฐœ์ด ์–ด๋ ต๋‹ค๋Š” ํŽธ๊ฒฌ์„ ๊นจ๊ณ  ์ƒ์ƒํ•˜๋Š” ๋ชจ๋“  ๊ฒƒ์„ ํ˜„์‹ค๋กœ ๋งŒ๋“ค์–ด๋ณด์ž๋Š” ์ทจ์ง€๋กœ ์ถœ๋ฐœํ–ˆ๋‹คโ€๊ณ  ๋Œ€ํšŒ์˜ ์ทจ์ง€๋ฅผ ์„ค๋ช…ํ–ˆ๋‹ค.

๊ทธ๋Š” โ€œ์†Œํ”„ํŠธ์›จ์–ด๋Š” ์ธ๋ฅ˜๊ฐ€ ์ง๋ฉดํ•œ ๋ฌธ์ œ๋ฅผ ํ•ด๊ฒฐํ•˜๊ณ  ์„ธ์ƒ์„ ๋ฐ”๊ฟ€ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋Š” ์—ด์‡ โ€๋ผ๋ฉฐ โ€œ์ •๋ณด๊ธฐ์ˆ (IT)๋กœ ๋Œ€๋ณ€๋˜๋Š” ์†Œํ”„ํŠธ์›จ์–ด์˜ ํž˜์„ ๋นŒ๋ ค ํ˜„๋Œ€์ธ์ด ์ง๋ฉดํ•œ ๋‹ค์–‘ํ•œ ๋ฌธ์ œ๋ฅผ ํ•ด๊ฒฐํ•˜๋Š” ๊ณผ์ •์—์„œ ๋” ๋งŽ์€ ๋ถ€์™€ ๋ฐœ์ „์„ ์ด๋Œ์–ด๋‚ด ๋ณด์ž๋Š”๊ฒŒ ๋Œ€ํšŒ์˜ ๋ชฉ์ โ€์ด๋ผ๊ณ  ๋ฐํ˜”๋‹ค.

๊ทธ๋Š” โ€œ์ „ ์ง์žฅ์ธ ๋ฏธ๊ตญ ์ตœ๋Œ€์˜ ํ†ต์‹ ํšŒ์‚ฌ AT&T๋ฅผ ๋– ๋‚˜ MS๋กœ ์˜ฎ๊ธธ ๊ฒฐ์‹ฌ์„ ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๋œ ๊ฒƒ๋„ ์†Œํ”„ํŠธ์›จ์–ด๊ฐ€ ๊ฐ€์ง„ ๋ฌดํ•œํ•œ ์ž ์žฌ๋ ฅ์„ ๋ดค๊ธฐ ๋•Œ๋ฌธโ€์ด๋ผ๊ณ  ์„ค๋ช…ํ–ˆ๋‹ค.

์Šคํ… ์ด๊ด„์€ ์ด์™€ ๊ด€๋ จํ•ด โ€œ๋Œ€ํšŒ ํ•ต์‹ฌ ๊ฒฝ์Ÿ ๋ถ€๋ฌธ ์ค‘ ์‚ฌํšŒ ๊ณตํ—Œ๋„๋ฅผ ํ‰๊ฐ€ํ•˜๋Š” ์›”๋“œ ์‹œํ‹ฐ์ฆŒ์‹ญ(World Citizenship)์ด ๋งŽ์€ ์„ฑ๊ณผ๋ฅผ ๋‚ณ๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹คโ€๋ผ๊ณ  ๊ฐ•์กฐํ–ˆ๋‹ค.

์‹ค์ œ๋กœ ์ด๋ฒˆ ๋Œ€ํšŒ์—์„œ๋Š” ๋ฌผ๊ณผ ์Œ์‹ ๋ถ€์กฑ ๋ฌธ์ œ, ์งˆ๋ณ‘, ์ž์—ฐ์žฌํ•ด ๋ฌธ์ œ ํ•ด๊ฒฐ์„ ์œ„ํ•œ ์—ฌ๋Ÿฌ ๊ฐ€์ง€ ์•„์ด๋””์–ด๋“ค์ด ์Ÿ์•„์ ธ ๋‚˜์™”๋‹ค.

์ง€์—ญ๋ณ„ ๊ธฐ๋ถ€ ๊ธฐ๊ด€๊ณผ ๋นˆ๊ณค์ธต๊ณผ ์†Œ์™ธ๊ณ„์ธต์— ์Œ์‹ ๊ณต๊ธ‰์„ ํ•˜๋Š” ๋น„์˜๋ฆฌ๋‹จ์ฒด๋ฅผ ์—ฐ๊ฒฐํ•ด ๊ธฐ๋ถ€ ํšจ๊ณผ๋ฅผ ๋ฐฐ๋กœ ๋งŒ๋“œ๋Š” ์•ฑ, ์žฌ๋‚œ ํ˜„์žฅ์—์„œ ์„ผ์„œ๋ฅผ ์ด์šฉํ•ด ์†Œ๋ฐฉ๊ด€์—๊ฒŒ ํƒˆ์ถœ๊ตฌ๋ฅผ ์•Œ๋ ค์ฃผ๋Š” ์•ฑ, ๋‹น๋‡จํ™˜์ž์˜ ํ˜ˆ๋‹น ์ˆ˜์น˜๋ฅผ ํ•œ ๋ฒˆ์— ๊ด€๋ฆฌํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๊ฒŒ ํ•ด์ฃผ๋Š” ์˜๋ฃŒ์šฉ ์•ฑ ๋“ฑ์ด ๋Œ€ํ‘œ์ ์ธ ์˜ˆ๋‹ค.

์ฐธ๊ฐ€์ž ์ค‘ ์ƒ๋‹น์ˆ˜๋Š” ์‚ฌ์—… ๊ณ„ํš์—์„œ ๊ธฐ์—…์ด๋‚˜ ๊ธฐ๊ด€์„ ์ œ์™ธํ•œ ์ผ๋ฐ˜์ธ์—๊ฒŒ ๊ธฐ์ˆ ์„ ๋ฌด๋ฃŒ๋กœ ๊ณต๊ฐœํ•˜๊ฒ ๋‹ค๋Š” ๊ณ„ํš์„ ๋ฐํžˆ๊ธฐ๋„ ํ–ˆ๋‹ค.

์Šคํ… ์ด๊ด„์€ โ€œํ•ด๊ฒฐ์ฑ…์„ ๋‚ด๋Š” ๊ฒƒ๋„ ์ค‘์š”ํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ ๊ธฐ์ˆ ์ด ํ™œ์šฉ๋˜๋ ค๋ฉด ๊ทธ์— ๋งž๋Š” ๊ธฐ๋ฐ˜์„ ๋งˆ๋ จํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฒŒ ํ•„์ˆ˜๊ธฐ ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์— ์ด๋ฒˆ ๋Œ€ํšŒ์—์„œ๋Š” ์•„์ด๋””์–ด์™€ ๊ธฐ์ˆ ์™„์„ฑ๋„ ๋ชป์ง€์•Š๊ฒŒ ์‚ฌ์—…์„ฑ๋„ ์—„๊ฒฉํ•˜๊ฒŒ ํ‰๊ฐ€ํ–ˆ๋‹คโ€๊ณ  ๋งํ–ˆ๋‹ค.

๊ทธ๋Š” โ€œ์ด ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์— ์˜ฌํ•ด๋ถ€ํ„ฐ๋Š” ํ•™์ƒ๋“ค์ด ์ž๊ธฐ ์•„์ด๋””์–ด๋ฅผ ๋” ์ž˜ ๋ฐœํ‘œํ•˜๊ณ  ์‹ค์ œ ์‚ฌ์—…์œผ๋กœ ์—ฐ๊ฒฐํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋„๋ก ๋ณ„๋„์˜ ๊ต์œก๋„ ์ œ๊ณตํ–ˆ๋‹คโ€๊ณ  ์„ค๋ช…ํ–ˆ๋‹ค.

์Šคํ… ์ด๊ด„์— ๋”ฐ๋ฅด๋ฉด ์ด๋งค์ง„์ปต์˜ ์—ญ๋Œ€ ์ฐธ๊ฐ€ํŒ€ ๋Œ€๋ถ€๋ถ„์€ ์œ ์—” ๊ฐ™์€ ๊ตญ์ œ๊ธฐ๊ตฌ๋‚˜ ์ •๋ถ€๊ธฐ๊ด€, ๊ธฐ์—…๊ณผ ์‚ฌ์—…ํ˜‘์ƒ์„ ์ง„ํ–‰์ค‘์ด๊ฑฐ๋‚˜ ๋ฒค์ฒ˜ ๊ธฐ์—…์„ ๊พธ๋ ค ๋‚˜๊ฐ€๊ณ  ์žˆ๋‹ค.

๊ทธ๋Š” ์ด๋ฒˆ ๋Œ€ํšŒ ์—ญ์‹œ ๋งŽ์€ ํ•™์ƒ๋“ค์ด ๊ฟˆ์„ ์‹คํ˜„ํ•ด๋‚˜๊ฐˆ ๊ธฐํšŒ๊ฐ€ ๋˜๊ธฐ๋ฅผ ๋ฐ”๋ž€๋‹ค๊ณ  ํ–ˆ๋‹ค.

๊ทธ๋Š” โ€œ์ด๋งค์ง„ ์ปต์˜ ์ฒ ํ•™์€ โ€˜๊ฟˆ๊พธ๊ณ  ๋งŒ๋“ค๊ณ  ๊ทธ๋กœ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ ์‚ด์•„๊ฐ€๋ผโ€™๋ผ๋Š” ๊ฒƒโ€์ด๋ผ๋ฉฐ ์ฐธ๊ฐ€ํ•œ ํ•™์ƒ๋“ค์—๊ฒŒ โ€œ์ด์ œ ์ถœ๋ฐœ์„ ์œ„ํ•œ ์ฒซ๋ฐœ์„ ๋‚ด๋””๋Ž ์„ ๋ฟ์ด๋ผ๋Š” ์ƒ๊ฐ์„ ํ•˜๊ณ  ๊ณ„์† ๋งค์ง„ํ•ด ๋‹ฌ๋ผโ€๊ณ  ๋‹น๋ถ€ํ–ˆ๋‹ค.

ohyes@yna.co.kr

http://news.mk.co.kr/newsRead.php?sc=30000037&year=2013&no=574596

์†Œ์…œ ํ”ผ๋กœ๊ฐ(social fatigue)’

โ€œSNS ์™œ ๊ทธ๋งŒ๋’€์–ด?โ€…โ€œ๊ผด ๋ณด๊ธฐ ์‹ซ์–ด์„œ”

์ดˆ๋“ฑํ•™๊ต ๋™์ฐฝ ๋ฐด๋“œ์—์„œ ์ตœ๊ทผ ์นœ๊ตฌ ๋‘˜์ด ๋น ์ ธ ๋‚˜๊ฐ”์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ๋ญ”๊ฐ€ ๊ฑฐ์Šฌ๋ฆฌ๋Š” ๊ฒŒ ์žˆ์—ˆ๋‚˜ ๋ด…๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋ž˜์„œ ํ˜น์‹œ ์ƒ์ฒ˜ ์ž…ํž ๋งŒํ•œ ๊ธ€์ด๋‚˜ ์‚ฌ์ง„์„ ์˜ฌ๋ ธ๋Š”์ง€ ๋’ค์ ธ๋ดค๋Š”๋ฐ ํŠน๋ณ„ํžˆ ๋ˆˆ์— ๋„๋Š” ๊ฑด ์—†์—ˆ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ์ œ ์ง์ž‘์œผ๋ก  ๋ˆ„๊ตฐ๊ฐ€ ๋ฌด์‹ฌ์ฝ” ์˜ฌ๋ฆฐ ๊ธ€์ด๋‚˜ ์‚ฌ์ง„์„ ๋ณด๊ณ  โ€˜์ž˜๋‚œ ์ฒ™ ํ•œ๋‹คโ€™ โ€˜๊ผด ๋ณด๊ธฐ ์‹ซ๋‹ค’๊ณ  ์ƒ๊ฐํ•œ ๊ฒŒ ์•„๋‹Œ๊ฐ€ ์‹ถ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ๋‹คํ–‰ํžˆ ์„ธ ์‚ฌ๋žŒ์ด ์ƒˆ๋กœ ๊ฐ€์ž…ํ•ด ์ „์ฒด ์ธ์›์€ ๋Š˜์–ด๋‚ฌ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋ž˜๋„ ๋‘ ์นœ๊ตฌ๊ฐ€ ๋ฐด๋“œ๋ฅผ ๋– ๋‚œ ๊ฒŒ ๊ณ„์† ๋งˆ์Œ์— ๊ฑธ๋ฆฝ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค.
๋ฐด๋“œ ๋ฟ์ด ์•„๋‹ ๊ฒ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ํŠธ์œ„ํ„ฐ๋„ ๊ทธ๋ ‡๊ณ  ํŽ˜์ด์Šค๋ถ๋„ ๊ทธ๋ ‡๊ณ โ€ฆ ๊ผด ๋ณด๊ธฐ ์‹ซ์€ ์‚ฌ๋žŒ์ด ์žˆ์–ด์„œ ๋– ๋‚ฌ๋‹ค๋Š” ์‚ฌ๋žŒ์ด ์ ์ง€ ์•Š์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ๊ผด ๋ณด๊ธฐ ์‹ซ์–ด์„œโ€ฆ ์ด๊ฒŒ ๋ฌด์Šจ ๋œป์ผ๊นŒ์š”? ์†Œ์…œ ๊ณต๊ฐ„์—์„œ ๋ˆ„๊ตฐ๊ฐ€ํ•œํ…Œ ๊ณต๊ฒฉ์„ ๋ฐ›์•˜๊ฑฐ๋‚˜ ๋ˆ„๊ตฐ๊ฐ€ ์ž˜๋‚œ ์ฒ™ ํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฒŒ ๋ณด๊ธฐ ์‹ซ์–ด์„œ ๋– ๋‚ฌ๋‹ค๋Š” ์–˜๊ธฐ๊ฒ ์ฃ . ์†Œ์…œ ์„œ๋น„์Šค๋ฅผ ๊ณ„์† ์ด์šฉํ•˜๋Š” ์ด๋“ค๋„ โ€˜๊ทธ๋Ÿด ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๊ฒ ๋‹คโ€™๋Š” ๋ฐ˜์‘์„ ๋ณด์ž…๋‹ˆ๋‹ค.
์–ด๋–ค ์†Œ์…œ ์„œ๋น„์Šค๋“  ๋น„์Šทํ•ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ํŠธ์œ„ํ„ฐ๋“  ํŽ˜์ด์Šค๋ถ์ด๋“  ์‹ธ์ด์›”๋“œ๋“  โ€œ๊ผด ๋ณด๊ธฐ ์‹ซ์€” ์‚ฌ๋žŒ์€ ํ•ญ์ƒ ์žˆ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ์‚ฌ๋žŒ๋งˆ๋‹ค ์„ฑ์žฅ๊ณผ์ •์ด ๋‹ค๋ฅด๊ณ  ์ƒ๊ฐ์ด ๋‹ค๋ฅด๋‹ค ๋ณด๋‹ˆ ๋‚˜์—๊ฒ ๋‹น์—ฐํ•œ ๊ฒƒ๋„ ๋ˆ„๊ตฐ๊ฐ€์—๊ฒ ๋‹น์—ฐํ•˜์ง€ ์•Š์„ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ์–ด๋–ค ์ด๋Š” ์›ƒ์–ด ๋„˜๊ธฐ๋Š”๋ฐ ์–ด๋–ค ์ด๋Š” ํ™”๋ฅผ ๋ฒ„๋Ÿญ ๋ƒ…๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ๋ˆ„๊ฐ€ ๋งž๊ณ  ๋ˆ„๊ฐ€ ํ‹€๋ ธ๋‹ค๊ณ  ํ•  ์ˆ˜๋Š” ์—†๊ณ , ๊ทธ๋ƒฅ ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ๊ฑฐ๊ฒ ์ฃ .
ํŠธ์œ„ํ„ฐ, ํŽ˜์ด์Šค๋ถ์„ ์ด์šฉํ•˜๊ธฐ ์‹œ์ž‘ํ•œ 3, 4๋…„ ์ „์— ์ €๋Š” โ€˜์†Œ์…œ ์ธ๊ฒฉ’์ด๋ž€ ๋ง์„ ๋งŽ์ด ํ–ˆ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ์†Œ์…œ ๊ณต๊ฐ„์— ์˜ฌ๋ฆฐ ๊ธ€์„ ์œ ์‹ฌํžˆ ๋ณด๋ฉด ๋จ๋จ์ด๋ฅผ ์•Œ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๊ณ  ์ด๋Ÿฐ ๊ฒƒ์ด ์Œ“์—ฌ โ€˜์†Œ์…œ ์ธ๊ฒฉโ€™์œผ๋กœ ํ‰๊ฐ€๋ฐ›๋Š”๋‹ค๋Š” ์–˜๊ธฐ์ฃ . ์˜คํ”„๋ผ์ธ์—์„œ๋Š” ๋ง์ด ๊ท€๋ฅผ ๋ฉ€๊ฒŒ ํ•ด ํŒ๋‹จ์ด ํ๋ ค์งˆ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ์ง€๋งŒ ์†Œ์…œ ๊ณต๊ฐ„์—๋Š” ๋ง์ด ์—†์–ด ์˜คํžˆ๋ ค ๋” ์ •ํ™•ํžˆ ๋ณผ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋Š” ๊ฒƒ ๊ฐ™์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค.
์†Œ์…œ ์ดˆ๋ณด ๋•Œ๋Š” ๊ฝค ๋งŽ์ด ๋†€๋ž์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ์‚ฌ๋žŒ๋“ค ์ƒ๊ฐ์ด ์ด๋ ‡๊ฒŒ ๋‹ค๋ฅผ ์ˆ˜๋„ ์žˆ๊ตฌ๋‚˜, ์›ƒ์ž๊ณ  ํ•œ ์–˜๊ธฐ์ธ๋ฐ ์™œ ํ™”๋ฅผ ๋‚ด์ง€? ์ € ์นœ๊ตฌํ•œํ…Œ ์ €๋Ÿฐ ๋ฉด๋„ ์žˆ์—ˆ๋‚˜? ์ƒ๊ฐ๋ณด๋‹ค ์†Œ์‹ฌํ•˜๋„ค. ์ด๋Ÿฐ ์ƒ๊ฐ์„ ๋งŽ์ด ํ–ˆ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ๋˜ ๋‚ด๊ฐ€ ๋ฌด์‹ฌ์ฝ” ์˜ฌ๋ฆฐ ๊ธ€์ด ๋ˆ„๊ตฐ๊ฐ€๋ฅผ ๊ธฐ๋ถ„ ๋‚˜์˜๊ฒŒ ํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค๋Š” ๊ฒƒ๋„ ์ ˆ๊ฐํ–ˆ๊ณ , ์•„๋ฌด๋ฆฌ ์ •ํ™•ํžˆ ํ‘œํ˜„ํ•˜๋ ค ํ•ด๋„ ์˜คํ•ด ๋ฐ›๋Š” ๊ฒฝ์šฐ๋„ ์ž์ฃผ ๊ฒฝํ—˜ํ–ˆ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค.
์š”์ฆ˜ โ€˜์†Œ์…œ ํ”ผ๋กœ๊ฐ(social fatigue)’ ์–˜๊ธฐ๊ฐ€ ์ข…์ข… ๋‚˜์˜ต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ํ•œ ๋งˆ๋””๋กœ ์†Œ์…œ ์„œ๋น„์Šค์— ํ”ผ๋กœ๊ฐ€ ๋ˆ„์ ๋๋‹ค๋Š” ๋œป์ด๊ณ , ์‰ฝ๊ฒŒ ๋งํ•˜๋ฉด ์†Œ์…œ ์„œ๋น„์Šค๋ฅผ ์ด์šฉํ•˜๋‹ˆ ํ”ผ๊ณคํ•˜๋‹ค๋Š” ์–˜๊ธฐ์ฃ . ํŠธ์œ„ํ„ฐ ์นœ๊ตฌ๋“ค ์‚ฌ์ดํŠธ์— ๋“ค์–ด๊ฐ€์„œ ๋ณด๋ฉด ์ตœ๊ทผ 6๊ฐœ์›”์ด๋‚˜ 1๋…„ ๋™์•ˆ ๊ธ€์„ ํ•˜๋‚˜๋„ ์˜ฌ๋ฆฌ์ง€ ์•Š์€ ์ด๋“ค์ด ๊ฝค ๋งŽ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ์ œ ํŠธ์œ„ํ„ฐ ํƒ€์ž„๋ผ์ธ์— ์˜ฌ๋ผ์˜ค๋Š” ๊ธ€๋„ ํ˜„์ €ํžˆ ์ค„์—ˆ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ๋„๋Œ€์ฒด ๋ฌด์—‡์ด ์ด๋“ค์„ ํ”ผ๊ณคํ•˜๊ฒŒ ํ–ˆ์„๊นŒ์š”? ์ด๋“ค์€ ์™œ ํŠธ์œ„ํ„ฐ๋ฅผ ๋– ๋‚ฌ์„๊นŒ์š”?
๊ฐ€๋” โ€˜์†Œ์…œ ์—ํ‹ฐ์ผ“’์— ๊ด€ํ•ด ์ƒ๊ฐํ•˜๊ณค ํ•ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ๋ณ„ ๊ฒƒ ์•„๋‹™๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ์˜คํ”„๋ผ์ธ ๊ณต๊ฐ„์—์„œ ๋”๋ถˆ์–ด ์‚ด๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•ด ์„œ๋กœ ์—ํ‹ฐ์ผ“์„ ์ง€์ผœ์•ผ ํ•˜๋“ฏ์ด ์†Œ์…œ ๊ณต๊ฐ„์—์„œ๋„ ์—ํ‹ฐ์ผ“์„ ์ง€์ผœ์•ผ ํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฑด ์•„๋‹๊นŒ, ๋ณ„ ์ƒ๊ฐ ์—†์ด ๊ธ€์„ ์˜ฌ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค ๋ณด๋ฉด ๋•Œ๋กœ๋Š” ๋‚˜๋„ ๋ชจ๋ฅด๊ฒŒ ์ƒ์ฒ˜๋ฅผ ์ž…ํž ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๊ฒ ๋‹ค, ์†Œ์…œ ๊ณต๊ฐ„์—์„œ๋Š” ๋‚จ์„ ๋ฐฐ๋ คํ•˜๋Š” ๋งˆ์Œ์ด ๋งŽ์ด ํ•„์š”ํ•˜๊ฒ ๋‹ค. ์ด๋Ÿฐ ์ƒ๊ฐ์ž…๋‹ˆ๋‹ค.
์†Œ์…œ ์—ํ‹ฐ์ผ“์ด ๋ญ”์ง€๋Š” ์ž˜ ๋ชจ๋ฆ…๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ์–ธ์  ๊ฐ€ ๋ ˆ๋”ง(Reddit) ์‚ฌ์ดํŠธ์—์„œ ์†Œ์…œ ์—ํ‹ฐ์ผ“์— ๊ด€ํ•œ ํ† ๋ก ์ด ๋ฒŒ์–ด์กŒ๋Š”๋ฐ ์ด๋Ÿฐ ๊ธ€์„ ๋ดค์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. โ€˜ํ™”์žฅ์‹ค ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ์— ์˜ค์คŒ์ด ํฅ๊ฑดํžˆ ํ˜๋ ค์ง„ ๊ฑธ ๋ณด๋ฉด ํ™”๊ฐ€ ๋‚œ๋‹ค, ์กฐ์ค€์„ ์ œ๋Œ€๋กœ ํ•˜๋“ ์ง€ ์ž๊ธฐ๊ฐ€ ํ˜๋ฆฐ ์˜ค์คŒ์€ ๋‹ฆ๊ณ  ๋‚˜๊ฐ€์•ผ ํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ ์•„๋‹ˆ๋ƒ.โ€™ ์žฌ๋ฐŒ๋Š” ํ‘œํ˜„์ž…๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ์†Œ์…œ ๊ณต๊ฐ„์— ์ƒ๊ฐ ์—†์ด ๊ธ€์„ ์˜ฌ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค ๋ณด๋ฉด ์กฐ์ค€์ด ์ž˜๋ชป๋ผ ํ™”์žฅ์‹ค ๋ฐ”๋‹ฅ์— ์˜ค์คŒ์„ ํ˜๋ฆฌ๋Š” ๊ฒƒ๊ณผ ๊ฐ™์€ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ๋ฅผ ๊ฐ€์ ธ์˜จ๋‹คโ€ฆ ๋งž๋Š” ๋ง์ธ ๊ฒƒ ๊ฐ™์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค.
๋”ฐ์ง€๊ณ  ๋ณด๋ฉด ์†Œ์…œ ํ”ผ๋กœ๊ฐ์€ ๋ณธ์ธ์ด ์ž์ดˆํ•œ ์ธก๋ฉด๋„ ์žˆ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ํŒ”๋กœ์–ด๋ฅผ ๋Š˜๋ฆด ์š•์‹ฌ์œผ๋กœ ๋ง‰๋ฌด๊ฐ€๋‚ด๋กœ โ€˜๋งžํŒ”โ€™(ํŒ”๋กœ์ž‰ ํ’ˆ์•—์ด) ํ•˜๋‹ค ๋ณด๋ฉด ๊ณต๊ฒฉ ์„ฑํ–ฅ์ด ๊ฐ•ํ•œ ์‚ฌ๋žŒ์„ ํŒ”๋กœ์šฐ ํ•  ์ˆ˜๋„ ์žˆ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. โ€˜ํ”ผ๊ณคํ•œ ์‚ฌ๋žŒโ€™๊นŒ์ง€ ํŒ”๋กœ์šฐ ํ•˜๋ฉด์„œ ํ”ผ๊ณคํ•˜๋‹ค๊ณ  ๋งํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฑด ์•ž๋’ค๊ฐ€ ๋งž์ง€ ์•Š์ฃ . ํŠธ์œ„ํ„ฐ๋‚˜ ํŽ˜์ด์Šค๋ถ ํƒ€์ž„๋ผ์ธ์€ ๋ˆ„๊ตฌ๋ฅผ ํŒ”๋กœ์šฐ ํ•˜๋Š๋ƒ์— ๋”ฐ๋ผ ๋‹ฌ๋ผ์ง‘๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ์ข‹์€ ๊ธ€์„ ์˜ฌ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ์—ํ‹ฐ์ผ“์„ ์ง€ํ‚ค๋Š” ์‚ฌ๋žŒ๋งŒ ํŒ”๋กœ์šฐ ํ•œ๋‹ค๋ฉด ํ”ผ๋กœ๊ฐ์„ ๋œ ๋Š๋‚„ ๊ฑฐ๋ผ๊ณ  ์ƒ๊ฐํ•ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค.
์†Œ์…œ ๊ณต๊ฐ„์—์„œ ํ˜•์„ฑ๋˜๋Š” ์†Œ์…œ ์ธ๊ฒฉ์€ ๊ฐˆ์ˆ˜๋ก ์ค‘์š”ํ•ด์งˆ ๊ฒ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ๊ธฐ์—…์—์„œ ์‚ฌ์›์„ ์ฑ„์šฉํ•  ๋•Œ๋„ ๋‚จ์„ ๋ฐฐ๋ คํ•  ์ค„ ๋ชจ๋ฅด๋Š” ์‚ฌ๋žŒ, ์ž๊ธฐ๋งŒ ์˜ณ๋‹ค๊ณ  ๊ณ ์ง‘ ํ”ผ์šฐ๋Š” ์‚ฌ๋žŒ์ด๋ผ๋ฉด ๊บผ๋ฆฌ๊ฒ ์ฃ . ํ˜‘์—…ํ•  ์ค„ ๋ชจ๋ฅด๋Š” ์‚ฌ๋žŒ์œผ๋กœ ๋น„์ณ์งˆ ํ…Œ๋‹ˆ๊นŒ์š”. ํ™๋ช…๋ณด ๊ฐ๋…์€ โ€œํŒ€๋ณด๋‹ค ์ค‘์š”ํ•œ ๊ฒƒ์€ ์—†๋‹ค”๊ณ  ํ–ˆ๋‹ค์ฃ . ์†Œ์…œ ์ธ๊ฒฉ, ์†Œ์…œ ์—ํ‹ฐ์ผ“, ์†Œ์…œ ํ”ผ๋กœ๊ฐโ€ฆ ์†Œ์…œ ๊ณต๊ฐ„์—์„œย ์šฐ๋ฆฌ๋Š” ๋ˆ„๊ตฌ๋‚˜ ๊ฐ€ํ•ด์ž์ด๋ฉด์„œ ํ”ผํ•ด์ž… ์†Œ์…œ ์นœ๊ตฌ๋“ค์„ ํ”ผ๊ณคํ•˜๊ฒŒ ํ•˜์ง€ ์•Š๋„๋ก ๋” ์กฐ์‹ฌํ•ด์•ผ๊ฒ ๋‹ค… ์ƒ๊ฐํ•ฉ๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. [๊ด‘ํŒŒ๋ฆฌ]
*** ํ•œ๊ฒฝ๋น„์ฆˆ๋‹ˆ์Šค 2013๋…„ 7์›”17์ผ์ž ๊ธ€์„ ์ผ๋ถ€ ์ˆ˜์ •ํ•ด ์˜ฌ๋ ธ์Šต๋‹ˆ๋‹ค.

Come Together: A Guide for Group Blogs

Come Together: A Guide for Groupย Blogs

Many of the blogs and websites we discover are fertile ground for a mix of voices and perspectives, and for some of you, blogging is a collaborative effort. On WordPress.com, youโ€™ll stumble upon pockets of micro-communities on every subject, from the author-illustrators writing about illustration and design atย Illustration Ageย to the political science PhD students discussing current events atย The Smoke-Filled Room.

These sites, and many more, take advantage of various features in the dashboard that make group blogging easier. Have a collaborative blog โ€” or thinking of starting one? Hereโ€™s a checklist of settings and tools for your site:

 

Essentials

User profiles and gravatars

Display nameWith numerous users on one blog, itโ€™s important for each person to set theirย User Profileย onย WordPress.com atย Usersย โ†’ My Profile. You donโ€™t have to include all of your details, although you should set your display name, which isย how youโ€™ll be known on your groupโ€™s blog, as well as the entire WordPress.com community.

Gravatarย powers the user avatars on WordPress.com, and itโ€™s best for members of your team to have gravatars that represent them โ€” while weโ€™ve got default ones to choose from, the community would rather see your face!ย After youย configure your avatar, youโ€™ll see itย when you post on your own site, comment on blogs and in the forums, and interact on other areas across WordPress.com.

Invite users

Atย Users โ†’ Invite New,ย invite othersย to join your team to beย contributors, editors, or authors. (You can invite people who donโ€™t currently have a WordPress.com account โ€” once invited, they can follow the steps to complete the sign-up process.)

User roles

Invite NewOn collaborative blogs, people hold variousย user roles, includingeditor,ย author, andย contributor.ย Editorsย can view, edit, publish, and delete posts/pages; moderate comments and manage categories, tags, and links; and upload files/images.ย Authorsย can edit, publish, and delete their own posts, as well as upload files/images.

Contributorsย can edit their own posts but cannot publish them; their posts are submitted to an administrator for review. Anย administratorย has full and complete ownership of the blog, and can do absolutely everything. (If it makes sense, your site may have multipleย administrators, but we recommended one per site.)

Atย Usersย โ†’ All Users, you can manage the entire list of users and their roles. On this page, youโ€™ll find each personโ€™s basic details, from username to role to the number of published posts.

Users

Publishing tools

Post locking

This past April, we announcedย a number of improvementsย to help make publishing in a multi-author environment much easier. If you go intoย Posts โ†’ย All Postsย in the dashboard, the postย lockingย feature lets you see, in real time, whoโ€™s editing a post. For instance, if you and I both contributed to the same blog and you want to make an edit on a post,ย youโ€™ll see a note that says Iโ€™m currently editing it, with a shot of my gravatar:

Post Locking

For publishing teams, this feature is handy โ€” if you hover over the post title and click onย Edit, you have three options to choose from:ย Go back,ย Preview, andย Take over. If youโ€™re on a tight deadline and need to edit the post quickly, click on the blueย Take overย button:

Post Locking-Take Over

Post locking clearly shows the status of a post, which streamlines your teamโ€™s editorial workflow and helps make it easier for your to manage and publish new content.

Post revisions

 

Your team can view content changes with theย post revisionsย feature: you canย see details about who has previously edited or contributed to a post, and when the last changes were made:

Post revisions

Clicking on the link next to an avatar shows the changes that person made to the post:

Tracking revisions

A slider at the top moves forward and backward through revisions, and displays additions in green and deletions in red. You can revert to a particular version of a post using the blueย Restore This Revisionย button, too.

Widgets to present your team

Theย widgetsย in your dashboard inย Appearanceย โ†’ Widgetsย areย quick, simple additions to jazz up your sidebar, and weโ€™ve got some widgets that are especially helpful for multi-author blogs.

Authors widget

Theย Authors Widgetย is an easy, direct way to display your team, as shown onย The Smoke-Filled Room.ย When configuring the widget, you can adjust some settings, from a custom widget title, to the number of posts to show for each author, to the ability to specify avatar size:

Authors Widget

You can opt to remove avatars completely, which is whatย The Smoke-Filled Roomย team has done. On their blog, theyย show a text list of writers, with links to author pages:

Contributors List

Author grid

For those of you who dig the image grid look, theย Author Grid Widgetย adds color and sophistication to your site, and itโ€™s an easy yet dynamic way to show the minds and voices of your team. For example,ย Illustration Ageย is a very visual blog, so their Author Grid Widget is a natural addition to the sidebar:

 

If you hover over an illustratorโ€™s thumbnail, theirย Gravatar Hovercardย appears (which includes information pulled fromย Gravatar, so again, be sure your user profile details are up to date!). If you click on the thumbnail, youโ€™ll see an archive of the userโ€™s past posts.

Other simple, effective touches

Widget visibility

Theย widget visibility feature, which you can access and activate within any widget in your dashboard, lets you control which widgets to display when a visitor views a specific page of your site. While itโ€™s a nifty tool for all WordPressers, group bloggers can use it to make subtle but effective tweaks to the sidebar.

For example, you could show theย Twitter Timeline Widgetย of the appropriate author in the sidebar when a post by that author is viewed. (To do this, in the widgetโ€™s settings,ย selectย Showย and addย Authorย isย [Author’s Name]. You can read more aboutย widget visibilityย for other ideas.)

Author categories

Another quick tip? Create aย categoryย for each user, using their name. Itโ€™s an additional way for readers to find usersโ€™ posts, and they canย subscribe to the personโ€™s category feed, too.

Not part of a group blog? For general tips on getting started, visit our tutorial site atย Learn.wordpress.com.

You might also enjoy these related posts:

ย 

Three laws of the next Internet of Things โ€“ the new platforming evolution in computing

Three laws of the next Internet of Things โ€“ the new platforming evolution inย computing

By Mark Skilton, Global Director at Capgemini

There is a wave of new devices and services that are growing in strength extending the boundary of what is possible in todayโ€™s internet driven economy and lifestyle.ย ย  A striking feature is the link between apps that are on smart phones and tablets and the ability to connect to not just websites but also to data collection sensors and intelligence analytical analysis of that information. ย ย A key driver of this has also been the improvement in the cost-performance curve of information technology not just in CPU and storage but also the easy availability and affordability of highly powerful computing and mass storage in mobile devices coupled with access to complex sensors, advanced optics and screen displays results in a potentially truly immersive experience. ย This is a long way from the early days of radio frequency identity tags which are the forerunner of this evolution.ย  ย Digitization of information and its interpretation of meaning is everywhere, moving into a range of industries and augmented services that create new possibilities and value. A key challenge in how to understand this growth of devices, sensors, content and services across the myriad of platforms and permutations this can bring.

  • Energy conservation
    • Through home and building energy management
    • Lifestyle activity
      • Motion sensor Accelerometers, ambient light sensors, moisture sensors, gyroscopes, proximity sensors.
      • Lifestyle health
        • Heart rate, blood oxygen levels, respiratory rate, heart rate variability, for cardiorespiratory monitoring are some of the potential
          that connecting Devices
        • Medical Health
          • Biomedical sensing for patient care and elderly care management,ย  heart, lung, kidney dialysis,ย  medial value and organ implants, orthopaedic implants and brain-image scanning.ย ย  Examples of devices can monitoring elderly physical activity, blood pressure and other factors unobtrusively and proactively. ย These aim to drive improvements in prevention, testing, early detection, surgery and treatment helping improve quality of life and address rising medical costs and society impact of aging population.
          • Transport
            • Precision global positioning, local real time image perception interpretationย  sensing, dynamic electromechanical control systems.
            • Materials science engineering and manufacturing
              • Strain gauges, stress sensors, precision lasers, micro and nanoparticle engineering,ย  cellular manipulation, gene splicing,
                3D printing has the potential to revolutionize automated manufacturing but through distributed services over the internet, manufacturing can potentially be accessed by anyone.
              • Physical Safety and security
                • Examples include Controlling childrenโ€™s access to their mobile phone via your pc is an example of parental protection of children using web based applications to monitory and control mobile and computing access. ย Or Keyless entry using yourย  phone.ย  Wiki, Bluetooth and internet network app and device to automate locking of physical; door and entry remotely or in proximity.
                • Remote activity and swarming robotics
                  • The developing of autonomous robotics to respond and support exploration and services in harsh or inaccessible environments. Disabled support through robotic prosthetics and communication synthesis.ย  ย Swarming robots that fly or mimic group behavior.ย  Swarming robots that mimic nature and decision making.

These are just the tip of want is possible; the early commercial ventures that are starting to drive new ways to think about information technology and application services.

A key feature Iย noticed in all these devices are that they augment previous layers of technology by sitting on top of them and adding extra value.ย ย  While often the long shadow of the first generation giants of the public internet Apple, Google, Amazon give the impression that to succeed means a controlled platform and investment of millions; these new technologies use existing infrastructure and operate across a federated distributed architecture that represents a new kind of platforming paradigm of multiple systems.

Perhaps a paradigm of new technology cycles is that as the new tech arrives it will cannibalize older technologies. Clearly nothing is immune to this trend, even the cloud,ย ย  Iโ€™ll call it even the evolution of a ย kind a technology laws ( a feature ย I saw in byย Charles Fine clock speedย bookhttp://www.businessforum.com/clockspeed.htmlย  but adapted here as a function of compound cannibalization and augmentation).ย  I think Big Data is an example of such a shift in this direction as augmented informatics enables major next generation power pays for added value services.

These devices and sensors can work with existing infrastructure services and resources but they also create a new kind of computing architecture that involves many technologies, standards and systems. What was in early times called โ€œsystem of systemsโ€ Integration (Examples seen in the defence sectorย http://www.bctmod.army.mil/SoSI/sosi.htmlย  and digital ecosystems in the government sectorย ย http://www.eurativ.com/specialreport-skills/kroes-europe-needs-digital-ecosy-interview-517996ย )

While a sensor device can replace the existing thermostat in your house or the lighting or the access locks to your doors, they are offering a new kind of augmented experience that provides information and insight that enabled better control of the wider environment or the actions and decisions within a context.

This leads to a second feature of these device, theย ability to learn and adapt from the inputs and environment.ย ย This is probably an even larger impact than the first to use infrastructure in that itโ€™s the ability to change the outcomes is a revolution in information.ย  The previous idea of static information and human sense making of this data is being replaced by the active pursuit of automated intelligence from the machines we build.ย ย  Earlier design paradigms that needed to define declarative services, what IT call CRUD (Create, Read, Update, Delete) as predefined and managed transactions are being replaced by machine learning algorithms that seek to build a second generation of intelligent services ย that alter the results and services with the passage of time and usage characteristics.

This leads me to a third effect that became apparent in the discussion of lifestyle services versus medical and active device management.ย  In the case of lifestyle devices a key feature is the ability to blend in with the personal activity to enable new insight in behavior and lifestyle choices, to passively and actively monitor or tack action, not always to affect they behavior itself. That isย to provide unobtrusive, ubiquitous presence. ย ย But moving this idea further it is also about the way the devices could merge in a become integrated within the context of the user or environmental setting.ย  The example of biomedical devices to augment patient care and wellbeing is one such example that can have real and substantive impact of quality of life as well as efficiency in cost of care programs with an aging population to support.

An interesting side effect of these trends is the cultural dilemma these devices and sensors bring in the intrusion of personal data and privacy. Yet once the meaning and value of if this telemetry on safety , health or material value factors is perceived for the good of the individual and community, the adoption of such services may become more pronounced and reinforced. Aย virtuous circleย of accelerated adoption seen as a key characteristic of successful growth and a kind of conditioning feedback that creates positive reinforcement.ย ย ย  ย While a key feature that is underpinning these is the ability of the device and sensor to have an unobtrusive, ubiquitous presence this overall effect is central to the idea of effective system of systems integration and borderless information flow TM (The Open Group)

These trends I see as three laws of the next Internet of things describing a next generation platforming strategy and evolution.

Its clear that sensors and devices are merging together in a way that will see cross cutting from one industry to another.ย  Motion and temperature sensors in one will see application in another industry.ย ย  Services from one industry may connect with other industries as combinations of these services, lifestyles and affects.

 

Formal and informal communities both physical and virtual will be connected through sensors and devices that pervade the social, technological and commercial environments. This will drive further growth in the mass of data and digitized information with the gradual semantic representation of this information into meaningful context.ย  Apps services will develop increasing intelligence and awareness of the multiplicity of data, its content and metadata adding new insight and services to the infrastructure fabric.ย  This is a new platforming paradigm that may be constructed from one or many systems and architectures from the macro to micro, nano level systems technologies.

The three laws as I describe may be recast in a lighter tongue-in-cheek way comparing them to the famous Isaac Asimov three laws of robotics.ย ย  This is just an illustration but in some way implies that the sequence of laws is in some fashion protecting the users, resources and environment by some altruistic motive.ย  This may be the case in some system feedback loops that are seeking this goal but often commercial micro economic considerations may be more the driver. However I canโ€™t help thinking that this does hint to what maybe the first stepping stone to the eventuality of such laws.

Three laws of the next generation of The Internet of Things โ€“ a new platforming architecture

Law 1.ย A device, sensor or service may operate in an environment if it can augment infrastructure

Law 2.ย ย A device, sensor or service must be ableย  to learn and adapt its response to the environment as long as ย itโ€™s not inย conflict with the First law

Law 3.ย A device, sensor or service ย must have unobtrusive ubiquitous presence such that it does not conflict with the First or Second laws

References

ยทย ย ย ย ย ย ย Energy conservation

  • The example ofย  Nestย ย http://www.nest.comย Learning thermostat, founded by Tony Fadell, ex ipod hardware designer andย  Head of iPod and iPhone division, Apple. ย ย The device monitors and learns about energy usage in a building and adapts and controls the use of energy for improved carbon and cost efficiency.
  • Lifestyle activity

 

ย Mark Skiltonย is Global Director for Capgemini, Strategy CTO Group, Global Infrastructure Services. His role includes strategy development, competitive technology planning including Cloud Computing and on-demand services, global delivery readiness and creation of Centers of Excellence. He is currently author of the Capgemini University Cloud Computing Course and is responsible for Group Interoperability strategy.

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์„œ์–‘ ์‚ฌ์ƒ์˜ ํ๋ฆ„-๊ทผ๋Œ€๋ฅผ ์ค‘์‹ฌ์œผ๋กœ ์ •์น˜์‚ฌ์ƒ์˜ ๋ฐœ์ „

http://blog.naver.com/cocain11/9002391896

1. ์‚ฌ์กฐ๋ฅผ ์ค‘์‹ฌ์œผ๋กœ ๋ณธ ์„œ์–‘ ์‚ฌ์ƒ

๊ตฌ์กฐ์ฃผ์˜ – ์–ด๋–ค ์‚ฌ๋ฌผ์˜ ์˜๋ฏธ๋Š” ๊ฐœ๋ณ„๋กœ์„œ๊ฐ€ ์•„๋‹ˆ๋ผ ์ „์ฒด ์ฒด๊ณ„ ์•ˆ์—์„œ ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ์‚ฌ๋ฌผ๋“ค๊ณผ์˜ ๊ด€๊ณ„์— ๋”ฐ๋ผ ๊ทœ์ •๋œ๋‹ค๋Š” ์ธ์‹์„ ์ „์ œ๋กœ ํ•˜์—ฌ, ๊ฐœ์ธ์˜ ํ–‰์œ„๋‚˜ ์ธ์‹ ๋“ฑ์„ ๊ถ๊ทน์ ์œผ๋กœ ๊ทœ์ •ํ•˜๋Š” ์ด์ฒด์ ์ธ ๊ตฌ์กฐ์™€ ์ฒด๊ณ„์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ํƒ๊ตฌ๋ฅผ ์ง€ํ–ฅํ•œ ํ˜„๋Œ€ ์ฒ ํ•™ ์‚ฌ์ƒ์˜ ํ•œ ๊ฒฝํ–ฅ์ด๋‹ค

๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜ – ํ•ฉ๋ฆฌ์ ์ด๊ณ  ๊ณผํ•™์ ์ธ ์‚ฌ๊ณ ๋Š” ํ”ํžˆ ํ˜„๋Œ€์ ์ธ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋ผ๊ณ  ๋งํ•œ๋‹ค. ์ฃผ๊ด€๊ณผ ๊ฐ์ •์„ ์ตœ๋Œ€ํ•œ ๋ฐฐ์ œํ•˜๊ณ  ๋ƒ‰์ฒ ํ•œ ์ด์„ฑ๊ณผ ๊ณผํ•™์ ์ธ ๊ด€์ ์„ ์ทจํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์ด ๊ณง ํ˜„๋Œ€์„ฑ์ด๋ผ๊ณ  ์ƒ๊ฐํ•œ๋‹ค. ํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ ์ƒ์‹๊ณผ๋Š” ๋‹ฌ๋ฆฌ ํ˜„๋Œ€์„ฑ์€ ์‚ฌ์‹ค ๊ทธ๋Ÿฐ ๊ฒƒ๊ณผ๋Š” ๊ฑฐ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ๋ฉ€๋‹ค.

๋‚ก์€ ํ‹€์„ ๋ถ€์ˆ˜๋Š” ๋ฐ ์•ž์žฅ์„œ๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์€ ๋Œ€๊ฐœ ์‚ฌํšŒ ์ด๋ก ์ด๋‚˜ ๊ณ ํ•™๋ณด๋‹ค ๋ฌธํ•™์ด๋‚˜ ์˜ˆ์ˆ ์ด๋‹ค. ์ค‘์„ธ์˜ ํ‹€์„ ํ•ด์ฒดํ•œ ์ดํƒˆ๋ฆฌ์•„ ๋ฅด๋„ค์ƒ์Šค์˜ ๊ธฐํญ์ œ๊ฐ€ ๋œ ์ธ๋ฌผ๋„ ๋‹จํ…Œ์™€ ํŽ˜ํŠธ๋ผ๋ฅด์นด ๊ฐ™์€ ๋ฌธํ•™๊ธฐ๋“ค ์ด์—ˆ๋“ฏ์ด ๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜๋  ์ฒ ํ•™๊ณผ ๊ณผํ•™๋ณด๋‹ค ์˜ˆ์ˆ ์—์„œ ๋จผ์ € ์‹œ์ž‘๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค.

์‚ฌ์‹ค์ฃผ์˜๋ฅผ ๋ฐ˜๋Œ€ํ•˜๋ฉด์„œ ํƒ„์ƒํ•œ ์ธ์ƒ์ฃผ์˜๊ฐ€ ๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜์˜ ์„ ๋ด‰์ด์—ˆ๋‹ค. ์šฐ๋ฆฌ๋กœ ์น˜๋ฉด ๊ตญ์ „์— ํ•ด๋‹นํ•˜๋Š” 19์„ธ๊ธฐ ๋ง ํ”„๋ž‘์Šค์˜ ๋ณด์ˆ˜์ ์ธ ์‚ด๋กฑ์ „์€ ์‹œ๋Œ€์˜ ์ถ”์„ธ๋ฅผ ๋ฌด์‹œํ•˜๊ณ  ์—ฌ์ „ํžˆ ์‚ฌ์‹ค์ฃผ์˜ ์›์น™์„ ๊ณ ์ˆ˜ ํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ์ด๋ฅผ ์–ด๋Š ๊ธฐ์ž๊ฐ€ ‘์ธ์ƒ์ฃผ์˜์ž’๋ผ๊ณ  ๋น„์•„๋ƒฅ ๊ฑฐ๋ฆฐ ๋ช…์นญ์ด ๋ฐ”๋กœ ๋ฅด๋„ค์ƒ์Šค ์ด๋ž˜ ๊ฐ€์žฅ ํฐ ๋ฏธ์ˆ ์‚ฌ์ƒ์˜ ๋ณ€ํ˜์„ ์ดˆ๋ž˜ํ–ˆ๋‹ค.

1830๋…„๋Œ€ ์‚ฌ์ง„์ˆ ์˜ ๋ฐœ๋‹ฌ๋กœ ์‚ฌ์‹ค์„ ๊ทธ๋Œ€๋กœ ๋ฌ˜์‚ฌํ•˜๋Š”๋ฐ ๊ฐ€์น˜๋ฅผ ์ฐพ์ง€ ๋ชปํ•˜๊ฒŒ๋˜๋ฉด์„œ ์ธ์ƒ์ฃผ์˜ ํ™”๊ฐ€๊ฐ€ ๋Œ€๋‘๋˜๊ธฐ ์‹œ์ž‘ํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ์ดํ›„ ์‚ฌ์ง„์œผ๋กœ ํฌ์ฐฉํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์—†๋Š” ํšŒํ™” ๋ฏธ์ˆ ์˜ ๋…์ž์  ์˜์—ญ์„ ๊ตฌ์ถ•ํ•˜์˜€๋˜ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค.

์ดํ›„ ์ธ์ƒ์ฃผ์˜์ฒ˜๋Ÿผ ์ „ํ†ต์˜ ๊ถŒ์œ„์— ๋„์ „ํ•˜๊ณ  ์ƒˆ๋กœ์šด ์–‘์‹์„ ์ถ”๊ตฌํ•˜๋Š” ํ๋ฆ„์€ ๋ฏธ์ˆ ๋กœ ์ด์–ด์ ธ ์ƒ์ง•์ฃผ์˜, ์•ผ์ˆ˜ํŒŒ, ์ž…์ฒดํŒŒ, ์ดˆํ˜„์‹ค์ฃผ์˜๋ฅผ ๋‚ณ์•˜๋‹ค. ๋ฌธํ•™์—์„œ๋„ ๊ธฐ์กด์˜ ๋ฌธ์ฒด๋‚˜ ํ”Œ๋กฏ์˜ ๊ตฌ์„ฑ ๋ฐฉ์‹์„ ํ’์žํ•˜๊ณ  ํ˜„๋Œ€ ๋ฌธ๋ช…์˜ ์–ด๋‘์šด ์ธก๋ฉด๊ณผ ์†Œ์™ธ๋ฅผ ๋ถ€๊ฐ์‹œํ‚ค๋Š” ์‚ฌ์กฐ๋ฅผ ๋‚ณ์•˜๋‹ค. ๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜์€ ํ•ฉ๋ฆฌ์ ์ด๊ณ  ๊ณผํ•™์ ์ด๊ธฐ๋Š”์ปค๋…• ์˜คํžˆ๋ ค ๋น„ํ•ฉ๋ฆฌ์„ฑ๊ณผ ๋ฐ˜๊ณผํ•™์ฃผ์˜๋กœ ๋‚˜์•„๊ฐ„ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค.

๊ทธ๋Ÿฐ๋ฐ ์ด๋Ÿฐ ์˜ˆ์ˆ ๊ณผ ๋ฌธํ•™์ƒ์— ์ƒ๊ฒจ๋‚œ ์ƒˆ๋กœ์šด ํ’์กฐ์˜ ๋ฐฐํ›„์—๋Š” ๊ทผ๋Œ€ ์ด์„ฑ์ด ๋ฌด๋„ˆ์งˆ ์กฐ์ง์„ ๋ณด์ด๋Š” ์ฒ ํ•™์ƒ์˜ ์ค‘๋Œ€ํ•œ ๋ณ€ํ™”๊ฐ€ ๊น”๋ ค์žˆ๋‹ค. ๋ฐ์นด๋ฅดํŠธ๋กœ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ ์‹œ์ž‘๋œ ๊ทผ๋Œ€ ์ด์„ฑ๊ณผ ์ฒ ํ•™์  ํ•ฉ๋ฆฌ์ฃผ์˜๋Š” ์ž๋ณธ์ฃผ์˜์™€ ์‚ฐ์—…ํ˜๋ช… ์‹œ๋Œ€๋ฅผ ๋งž์•„ ์ ˆ์ •์˜ ์œ„์„ธ๋ฅผ ๋–จ์ณค๊ณ , 19์„ธ๊ธฐ ํ›„๋ฐ˜์˜ ์ž์—ฐ๊ณผํ•™์ฃผ์˜์™€ ์‹ค์ฆ์ฃผ์˜์—์„œ ์ตœ๊ณ ์กฐ์— ๋‹ฌํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฐ ํ˜„์‹ค์˜ ๋ณ€ํ™”๋Š” ์ˆ˜์‹ญ ๋…„ ์ „๋ถ€ํ„ฐ ์‚ฌ์ƒ์˜ ๋ณ€ํ™”๋ฅผ ํ†ตํ•ด ์˜ˆ๊ณ ๋˜๊ณ  ์žˆ์—ˆ๋‹ค.

19์„ธ๊ธฐ์ดˆ ํ—ค๊ฒ”์˜ ์‚ฌ์ƒ์—์„œ ๊ทผ๋Œ€ ์ด์„ฑ์€ ์ข…์ฐฉ์—ญ์— ์ด๋ฅด๋Ÿฌ ๊ทผ๋ณธ์ ์ธ ํ•œ๊ณ„๋ฅผ ๋“œ๋Ÿฌ๋ƒˆ์œผ๋ฉฐ, ์ดํ›„์˜ ์ฒ ํ•™์ž๋“ค์€ ์ƒ‰๊น”๊ณผ ๋ฐฉํ–ฅ์€ ์ œ๊ฐ๊ฐ์ด์—ˆ์–ด๋„ ํ•œ ๋ชฉ์†Œ๋ฆฌ๋กœ ํ—ค๊ฒ” ์ฒ ํ•™์„ ๋น„ํŒํ•˜๋ฉด์„œ ์ „ํ†ต์  ํ˜•์ด์ƒํ•™์˜ ์ข…๋ง์„ ์„ ์–ธํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฐ ์ ์—์„œ ๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜์€ ์ด๋ฏธ ์ฒ ํ•™์ ์œผ๋กœ ์ค€๋น„๋˜์—ˆ๊ณ  ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์ด ํ‘œ์ถœ๋œ ๋ถ„์•ผ๊ฐ€ ๊ณง ์˜ˆ์ˆ ๊ณผ ๋ฌธํ•™์ด์—ˆ๋‹ค. ์ด ์ƒˆ๋กœ์šด ์ถ”์„ธ๋Š” 20์„ธ๊ธฐ ์ค‘๋ฐ˜์„ ๋„˜์–ด์„œ๋ฉด์„œ, ์ œ2์ฐจ ์„ธ๊ณ„๋Œ€์ „ ์ดํ›„์— ๋˜๋‹ค์‹œ ์ค‘๋Œ€ํ•œ ํ˜•์งˆ ๋ณ€ํ™”๋ฅผ ๊ฒช๋Š”๋‹ค. ๊ทธ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ๋Š” ๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜ ์ดํ›„, ์ฆ‰ ํฌ์ŠคํŠธ๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜์ด๋ผ๊ณ  ๋ถˆ๋ฆฌ์ง€๋งŒ ํ˜„์žฌ๊นŒ์ง€ ๊ตฌ์ฒด์ ์ธ ์–‘ํƒœ๋กœ ์ •ํ˜•ํ™”๋˜์ง€๋Š” ์•Š์•˜๋‹ค.

ํฌ์ŠคํŠธ๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜– ๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜์€ ์ด์„ฑ๊ณผ ํ•ฉ๋ฆฌ์ฃผ์˜์— ๋ฐ˜๋Œ€ํ•˜๋Š” ๊ธฐ์น˜๋ฅผ ๋†’์ด ์น˜์ผœ๋“ค์—ˆ์œผ๋‚˜ ์ „ํ†ต๊ณผ์˜ ํ™•๊ณ ํ•œ ๊ฒฐ๋ณ„์„ ์ด๋ฃจ์ง€๋Š” ๋ชปํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ํ˜์‹ ์ ์ด๋ฉด์„œ๋„ ๋ณด์ˆ˜์„ฑ์„ ํฌ๊ฒŒ ํƒˆํ”ผํ•˜์ง€ ๋ชปํ•ด ์šฉ๋‘์‚ฌ๋ฏธ๊ฐ€ ๋˜๊ณ  ๋ง์•˜๋‹ค. ๊ทธ ์ด์œ ๋Š” ๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜์ด ์ฃผ๋กœ ๋ฌธํ•™๊ณผ ์˜ˆ์ˆ  ๋ถ„์•ผ์— ๊ตญํ•œ๋œ ํƒ“์ด ํฌ๋‹ค. ์ˆ˜๋ฐฑ ๋…„์— ๊ฑธ์ณ ์ด๋ ฅ์ด ์Œ“์ด๋ฉด์„œ ํŠผํŠผํ•ด์ง„ ํ•ฉ๋ฆฌ์ฃผ์˜์˜ ๋ฒฝ์„ ๋šซ์œผ๋ ค๋ฉด ๊ทธ์— ๋ชป์ง€์•Š์€ ๊ฐ•๋ ฅํ•œ ๋…ผ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ํ•„์š”ํ–ˆ๊ณ  ์ด๋ฅผ ์œ„ํ•ด์„œ๋Š” ์—ญ์‹œ ์ฒ ํ•™์  ์‚ฌ์œ ๊ฐ€ ๋’ท๋ฐ›์นจ๋˜์–ด์•ผ ํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฐ ์ ์—์„œ ํฌ์ŠคํŠธ๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜์€ ๋‹จ์ง€ ๋ง๋œป์ฒ˜๋Ÿผ ‘๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜ ์ดํ›„’์— ๊ทธ์น˜์ง€ ์•Š๊ณ  ๊ทผ๋Œ€ ์ด์„ฑ์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ์ฒด๊ณ„์ ์ธ ๊ณต๋žต์„ ์˜๋ฏธํ•œ๋‹ค.

์ด ๊ฐœ๋…์„ ์ฒ˜์Œ ์ œ๊ธฐํ•œ ํ”„๋ž‘์Šค์˜ ํ˜„๋Œ€ ์ฒ ํ•™์ž ๋ฆฌ์˜คํƒ€๋ฅด๋Š” ์›๋ž˜ ํฌ์ŠคํŠธ๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜์ด ์•„๋‹ˆ๋ผ ‘ํฌ์ŠคํŠธ๋ชจ๋˜’์ด๋ผ๋Š” ํ˜•์šฉ์‚ฌ๋ฅผ ์‚ฌ์šฉํ–ˆ๋‹ค(๋ชจ๋˜์€ ํ˜„๋Œ€๋ฅผ ๋œปํ•˜๋ฏ€๋กœ ํฌ์ŠคํŠธ๋ชจ๋˜์€ ๋ณดํ†ต ‘ํƒˆํ˜„๋Œ€’๋ผ๊ณ  ๋ฒˆ์—ญ๋œ๋‹ค). ๊ทธ ์šฉ์–ด๊ฐ€ ํ˜„๋Œ€์˜ ์ƒˆ๋กœ์šด ์‚ฌ์กฐ๋ฅผ ๋Œ€ํ‘œํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๋˜๋ฉด์„œ 1960๋…„๋Œ€๋ถ€ํ„ฐ๋Š” ํฌ์ŠคํŠธ๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜์ด๋ผ๋Š” ๋ช…์‚ฌ๊ฐ€ ์ž์—ฐ์Šค๋Ÿฝ๊ฒŒ ์‚ฌ์šฉ๋˜๊ธฐ ์‹œ์ž‘ํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ๋•Œ๋งˆ์นจ ํ‘ธ์ฝ”, ๋ฐ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค, ๋ผ์บ‰, ๋“ค๋ขฐ์ฆˆ ๋“ฑ ๊ตฌ์กฐ์ฃผ์˜ ๊ณ„์—ด์˜ ํ˜„๋Œ€ ์ฒ ํ•™์ž๋“ค๋„ ์ด ํ๋ฆ„์— ๋™์ฐธํ–ˆ์œผ๋ฏ€๋กœ ํฌ์ŠคํŠธ๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜์€ ๋Œ€์ฒด๋กœ ํฌ์ŠคํŠธ๊ตฌ์กฐ์ฃผ์˜์™€ ์ƒํ†ตํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค.

์ด์„ฑ์„ ๊ฑฐ๋ถ€ํ•˜๊ณ  ๋น„ํ•ฉ๋ฆฌ์ฃผ์˜๋ฅผ ์•ž์„ธ์šฐ๋Š” ์กฐ๋ฅ˜๋Š” ๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜์—์„œ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ ๋‚˜ํƒ€๋‚ฌ์œผ๋ฉฐ, ์˜์‹๋ณด๋‹ค ๋ฌด์˜์‹์„ ๊ฐ•์กฐํ•˜๊ณ  ์ฃผ์ฒด ๋Œ€์‹  ๊ตฌ์กฐ๋ฅผ ์ค‘์‹ฌ์œผ๋กœ ํ•˜๋Š” ์‚ฌ์œ  ์–‘์‹์€ ์ด๋ฏธ ๊ตฌ์กฐ์ฃผ์˜์—์„œ ๋ณด์—ฌ์ค€ ๋ฐ” ์žˆ๋‹ค. ํฌ์ŠคํŠธ๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜์€ ์ด๋Ÿฐ ํ๋ฆ„์„ ์ˆ˜์šฉํ•˜๋ฉด์„œ ์ด์„ฑ์„ ๋ฐ”ํƒ•์œผ๋กœ ํ•˜๋Š” ๊ณ„๋ชฝ๊ณผ ๋„๋•์„ ๊ฑฐ๋ถ€ํ•˜๊ณ  ํ•ฉ๋ฆฌ์ฃผ์˜๋กœ ์œ„์žฅ๋œ ์–ต์••์˜ ๋ณธ์งˆ์„ ํญ๋กœํ•˜๋Š” ๋ฐ ์ฃผ๋ ฅํ•œ๋‹ค.

๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜๊ณผ ๊ตฌ์กฐ์ฃผ์˜์—์„œ ์ œ์‹œ๋œ ๊ธฐ๋ณธ ๊ด€์ ์€ ํฌ์ŠคํŠธ๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜์—์„œ ๋”์šฑ ๊ตฌ์ฒดํ™”๋˜๊ณ  ๊ทน๋‹จํ™”๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค. ๋ฌด์˜์‹์˜ ํ™œ๋™์€ ํ•ฉ๋ฆฌ์ ์ด ์•„๋‹ˆ๋ผ ์ถฉ๋™์ ์ด๋ฏ€๋กœ ๋ฌด์˜์‹์ด ๊ฐ•์กฐ๋˜๋ฉด ์ด์„ฑ๋ณด๋‹ค ๊ฐ์ •๊ณผ ์š•๋ง์ด ์ค‘์‹œ๋œ๋‹ค. ์ด์„ฑ์€ ์˜ˆ์ธก ๊ฐ€๋Šฅํ•˜๊ณ  ํ™•์‹คํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ ๊ฐ์ •๊ณผ ์š•๋ง์€ ๋Š˜ ์˜ˆ์ธก ๋ถˆํ—ˆ์ด๊ณ  ๋ถˆํ™•์‹คํ•˜๋‹ค. ์ด์„ฑ์˜ ๊ณ ๋‚˜์ ์—์„œ ๋ณธ๋‹ค๋ฉด ๋ฌด์˜์‹์„ ๊ธฐ๋ณธ์œผ๋กœ ํ•˜๋Š” ์‚ฌ์œ ๋Š” ์ผ๊ด€์„ฑ์ด ์—†๊ณ  ๋ชจ์ˆœ์— ๊ฐ€๋“ ์ฐฌ ์‚ฌ๊ณ ๋ฐฉ์‹์ด๋‹ค. ๋”ฐ๋ผ์„œ ๋ถˆํ™•์‹ค์„ฑ๊ณผ ๋ชจ์ˆœ์„ ์„ค๋ช…ํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋Š” ์ƒˆ๋กœ์šด ์‚ฌ์œ  ์ฒด๊ณ„๊ฐ€ ํ•„์š”ํ•˜๋‹ค. ํ•„์—ฐ์„ฑ์„ ๊ธฐ์ค€์œผ๋กœ ์‚ผ๋Š” ์ „ํ†ต์  ์‚ฌ์œ ๋Š” ์ด์ œ ์šฐ์—ฐ์„ฑ์„ ํฌ๊ด„ํ•˜๋Š” ๋ฐฉํ–ฅ์œผ๋กœ ๋ฐ”๋€Œ์–ด์•ผ ํ•œ๋‹ค.

์ด๋Ÿฐ ๋ฌธ์ œ์˜์‹์€ ๋ฌด์ฑ…์ž„ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์„ค์ •๋œ ๊ฒƒ๋„ ์•„๋‹ˆ๊ณ  ์ฒ ํ•™์ด๋‚˜ ์–‘์ž์—ญํ•™์„ ์ •๋ฆฝํ•˜๋Š” ๋ฐ ๊ฒฐ์ •์  ๊ธฐ์—ฌ๋ฅผ ํ•œ ๋ด๋งˆํฌ์˜ ๋ฌผ๋ฆฌํ•™์ž ๋‹์Šค ๋ณด์–ด๋Š” ์šฐ์—ฐ์„ ๋‹จ์ˆœํ•œ ์šฐ์—ฐ์œผ๋กœ ๊ฐ„์ฃผํ•˜์ง€ ๋ง๊ณ  ๊ทธ ์ž์ฒด๋กœ ๋ฌผ๋ฆฌํ•˜ ๋ฒ•์น™์˜ ์ผ๋ถ€๋กœ์„œ ์ˆ˜์šฉํ•ด์•ผ ํ•œ๋‹ค๊ณ  ๋งํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ์ด๋Š” ์š•๋ง์˜ ์ž์—ฐ์Šค๋Ÿฌ์šด ํ๋ฆ„์„ ์–ต์ œํ•˜๊ฑฐ๋‚˜ ์ฐจ๋‹จํ•˜๋ฉด ์•ˆ๋œ๋‹ค๋Š” ๋“ค๋ขฐ์ฆˆ์™€ ๊ฐ€ํƒ€๋ฆฌ์˜ ์ž…์žฅ, ๊ธฐ๊ณ„์  ์ธ๊ณผ์„ฑ๊ณผ ํ•„์—ฐ์„ฑ์„ ํฌ๊ธฐํ•˜๊ณ  ์˜ˆ์ธก ๋ถˆ๊ฐ€๋Šฅ์„ฑ๊ณผ ์šฐ์—ฐ์„ฑ์˜ ๊ด€๋…์„ ๋„์ž…ํ•ด์•ผ ํ•œ๋‹ค๋Š” ํ‘ธ์ฝ”์˜ ์ฃผ์žฅ๊ณผ ๋งฅ์„ ๊ฐ™์ดํ•œ๋‹ค.

์ด๋ฐ์˜ฌ๋กœ๊ธฐ๊ฐ€ ํž˜์„ ์žƒ๋Š” ์‹œ๋Œ€์— ๊ฑธ๋งž๊ฒŒ ํฌ์ŠคํŠธ๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜์€ 1970๋…„๋Œ€๊นŒ์ง€ ์‚ฌํšŒ ์ฒด์ œ์˜ ํ†ต์น˜ ์ด๋ฐ์˜ฌ๋กœ๊ธฐ๋‚˜ ๋ฐ˜์ฒด์ œ์šด๋™์˜ ์ง€๋ฐฐ ์ด๋ฐ์˜ฌ๋กœ๊ธฐ์˜€๋˜ ๊ฑฐ๋Œ€ ์ด๋…์„ ๊ฑฐ๋ถ€ํ•œ๋‹ค. ์ง€๋ฐฐ๊ณ„๊ธ‰์ด ์ž์‹ ์˜ ์ดํ•ด๊ด€๊ณ„๋ฅผ ๊ตญ๊ฐ€๋‚˜ ๋ฏผ์กฑ์œผ๋กœ ํฌ์žฅํ•˜๋Š” ํ—ˆ๊ตฌ์  ๊ตญ๊ฐ€์ฃผ์˜๋Š” ๋งํ•  ๊ฒƒ๋„ ์—†์ง€๋งŒ, ๊ทธ์— ๋งž์„œ ๋ฏผ์กฑ์ ,๊ณ„๊ธ‰์  ํ•ด๋ฐฉ์„ ๋‚ด๊ฑฐ๋Š” ๊ฑฐ์ฐฝํ•œ ์ด๋…๋„ ๋งˆ์ฐฌ๊ฐ€์ง€๋กœ ๋ฐฐ์ฒ™์˜ ๋Œ€์ƒ์ด ๋œ๋‹ค.

ํฌ์ŠคํŠธ๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜์˜ ์„ ๊ตฌ์ž์ธ ๋ฆฌ์˜คํƒ€๋ฅด๋Š” ‘์ „์ฒด’๋ฅผ ๋‚ด์„ธ์šฐ๋Š” ์ผ์ฒด์˜ ์ด๋…์„ ๋ฏฟ์ง€ ์•Š๋Š”๋‹ค. ์ „์ฒด๋ฅผ ๊ตฌํ˜ธ๋กœ ์‚ผ์€ ๋ฐ์„œ ๋นš์–ด์ง„ ์‹œํ–‰์ฐฉ์˜ค๋Š” ์—ญ์‚ฌ์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋ฌด์ˆ˜ํžˆ ์ฐพ์•„๋ณผ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์ธ๋ฅ˜ ์—ญ์‚ฌ์—์„œ ์ „์ฒด์„ฑ๊ณผ ๋ณดํŽธ์„ฑ์„ ์ถ”๊ตฌํ•œ ์ •์น˜์™€ ์ข…๊ต, ์˜ˆ์ˆ ์€ ๋ชจ๋‘ ์‹คํŒจํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ๋ฆฌ์˜คํƒ€๋ฅด๋Š” ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์ด ๋ชจ๋‘ ๊ฑฐ๋Œ€ ๋‹ด๋ก ์ด๋ฉฐ, ๊ทธ ์ ์—์„œ๋Š” ํ˜๋ช…, ํ‰๋“ฑ, ์ฐฉ์ทจ์˜ ๊ทผ์ ˆ์„ ๋ถ€๋ฅด์ง–๋Š” ๋งˆ๋ฅดํฌ์Šค์ฃผ์˜๋„ ์˜ˆ์™ธ๊ฐ€ ์•„๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ๊ฑฐ๋Œ€ ๋‹ด๋ก ์€ ํ•ญ์ƒ ํ†ตํ•ฉ๊ณผ ํ•ฉ์˜๋ฅผ ๋ชฉ์ ์œผ๋กœ ํ•˜๊ธฐ ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์— ๋ชฉ์ ๋ก ์˜ ๋ซ์„ ํ”ผํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์—†๊ณ  ๊ธฐ๊ปํ•ด์•ผ ์œ ํ† ํ”ผ์•„์— ๊ทธ์น  ๋”ฐ๋ฆ„์ด๋‹ค. ์ค‘์š”ํ•œ ๊ฒƒ์€ ์ „์ฒด๊ฐ€ ์•„๋‹ˆ๋ผ ๋ถ€๋ถ„์ด๋ฉฐ ๋™์งˆ์„ฑ์ด ์•„๋‹ˆ๋ผ ์ฐจ์ด๋‹ค.

์ด์„ฑ, ์˜์‹, ํ™•์‹ค์„ฑ, ์ผ๊ด€์„ฑ, ์—ฐ์†์„ฑ, ๋™์งˆ์„ฑ ๋“ฑ ๊ทผ๋Œ€์  ์‚ฌ์œ ์˜ ํ‹€์„ ๋ฒ„๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ์–ธ์–ด, ๋ฌด์˜์‹, ๋ถˆํ™•์‹ค์„ฑ, ๋ชจ์ˆœ, ๋‹จ์ ˆ, ์ฐจ์ด์— ์ดˆ์ ์„ ๋งž์ถ”๋Š” ํฌ์ŠคํŠธ๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜์€ ๋ถ„๋ช…ํžˆ ์ƒˆ๋กœ์šด ์‚ฌ์กฐ์ง€๋งŒ ์•„์ง ํŠน์ •ํ•œ ๊ตฌ์ฒด์  ํ–‰ํƒœ๋ฅผ ๋ณด์ด์ง€๋Š” ์•Š๋Š”๋‹ค. ํ˜„์žฌ๊นŒ์ง€๋Š” ๊ฐ๊ฐ์˜ ์ฒ ํ•™์ž, ์˜ˆ์ˆ ๊ฐ€๋งˆ๋‹ค ‘์‹œ์•ˆ’์„ ๊ฐœ์ง„ํ•˜๋Š” ๋Š๋‚Œ์„ ์ฃผ๊ณ  ์žˆ๋Š” ์ •๋„๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋‚˜ ์ด๋Ÿฐ ํ๋ฆ„์ด ์ง€์†๋˜๋ฉด ์–ด๋–ค ์‹์ด๋“  ๋ชจ์ข…์˜ ํ˜•ํƒœ๋ฅผ ์ทจํ•˜๊ณ  ์ฒด๊ณ„์„ฑ์„ ๋ณด์ด๊ฒŒ ๋  ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค.

ํฅ๋ฏธ๋กœ์šด ๊ฒƒ์€ ์ „ํ†ต๊ณผ์˜ ํ™•๊ณ ํ•œ ๋ถ„๋ฆฌ๋ฅผ ์„ ์–ธํ•œ ํฌ์ŠคํŠธ๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜์ด ์˜คํžˆ๋ ค ๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜๋ณด๋‹ค๋„ ์ „ํ†ต์  ์‚ฌ์œ ์— ๊ฐ€๊นŒ์šด ์ธก๋ฉด์ด ์žˆ๋‹ค๋Š” ์ ์ด๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์€ ์–ต์••๊ณผ ๊ถŒ๋ ฅ์˜ ์ง€๋ฐฐ๋ฅผ ๊ฑฐ๋ถ€ํ•˜๊ณ  ์ž์œ ์™€ ํ•ด๋ฐฉ ๊ฐ™์€ ์ „ํ†ต์  ์ด๋…์„ ๊ณ„์Šนํ•˜๋Š” ์ธก๋ฉด์ด๋‹ค. ๊ณผ๊ฑฐ์ฒ˜๋Ÿผ ์ด๋ฐ์˜ฌ๋กœ๊ธฐ๋‚˜ ๊ฑฐ๋Œ€ ๋‹ด๋ก ์˜ ๋ฐฉํ–ฅ์œผ๋กœ ๋‚˜์•„๊ฐ€์ง€๋Š” ์•Š์ง€๋งŒ ๊ทธ๋Ÿฐ ์ด๋…๋“ค์„ ์—ฌ์ „ํžˆ ์กด์ค‘ํ•œ๋‹ค๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์€ ํฌ์ŠคํŠธ๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜์˜ ์‹œ๋Œ€์—๋„ ์•„์ง ๋ณดํŽธ์ ์ธ ๊ฐ€์น˜์˜ ์ƒ๋ช…๋ ฅ์€ ๋Š์–ด์ง€์ง€ ์•Š์•˜๋‹ค๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์„ ๋ฐ˜์ฆํ•œ๋‹ค.

ํ•ด์ฒด์ฃผ์˜ – ์ข…๋ž˜์˜ ๋กœ๊ณ ์Šค(logos) ์ค‘์‹ฌ์ฃผ์˜์ ์ธ ์ฒ ํ•™์„ ๊ทผ์›์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋น„ํŒํ•˜๋Š”, ํ”„๋ž‘์Šค ์ฒ ํ•™์ž J.๋ฐ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค(1930โˆผ )์˜ ๋…์ž์ ์ธ ์ค‘์‹ฌ ์‚ฌ๊ณ ๋ฐฉ์‹์ด๋‹ค. ํ”„๋ž‘์Šค์˜ ํ˜„๋Œ€ ์ฒ ํ•™์ž์ธ ์žํฌ ๋ฐ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค๋Š” ๊ทธ๋Ÿฐ ๊ตฌ๋ถ„๊นŒ์ง€ ๋ฌด์‹œํ•œ๋‹ค. ์ฑ…์„ ์˜ˆ๋กœ ๋“ค ๋•Œ ์ €์ž์™€ ๋…์ž๋Š” ํ•ด์ฒด๋œ๋‹ค. ๋ฌผ๋ฆฌ์ ์œผ๋กœ ์กด์žฌํ•˜์ง€ ์•Š๋Š”๋‹ค๋Š” ๋œป์€ ์•„๋‹ˆ์ง€๋งŒ ์ €์ž๋Š” ์ฑ…์„ ์“ธ ๋‹น์‹œ์— ํŠน์ •ํ•œ ๋…์ž๋ฅผ ๋ฏธ๋ฆฌ ์—ฐ์ƒํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์—†์œผ๋ฉฐ, ๋…์ž๋Š” ์ €์ž์˜ ์˜๋„๊ฐ€ ์–ด๋–ป๋“  ๊ทธ ์ฑ…์„ ์ž๊ธฐ ๋งˆ์Œ๋Œ€๋กœ ์ฝ์„ ๊ตฌ๋„ˆ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๋”ฐ๋ผ์„œ ์ €์ž์™€ ๋…์ž๋Š” ์ „ํ†ต์ ์ธ ๋…ํ•ด์—์„œ ์ƒ๊ฐํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ๋งŒํผ ์„œ๋กœ ํˆฌ๋ช…ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ์นœํ•œ ์‚ฌ์ด๊ฐ€ ์•„๋‹ˆ๋ฉฐ, ์˜คํžˆ๋ ค ์„œ๋กœ์— ๋Œ€ํ•ด ์ „ํ˜€ ๋ชจ๋ฅด๋Š” ๋‚ฏ์„  ๊ด€๊ณ„๋‹ค. ์ €์ž๋„ ๋…์ž๋„ ํ™•์ •๋œ ์‹ค์ฒด๊ฐ€ ์•„๋‹Œ๋ฐ ์–ด๋–ป๊ฒŒ ์ €์ž์—๊ฒŒ์„œ ๋…์ž์—๊ฒŒ๋กœ ์˜๋ฏธ๊ฐ€ ์ˆœ์กฐ๋กญ๊ฒŒ ํ๋ฅผ ๊ฒƒ์„ ๊ธฐ๋Œ€ํ•˜๊ฒ ๋Š”๊ฐ€?

์ €์ž์™€ ๋…์ž๊ฐ€ ํ•ด์ฒด๋˜๋ฉด ์ฑ…์˜ ๋‚ด์šฉ๋„ ํ•ด์ฒด๋œ๋‹ค. ํ•œ ๊ถŒ์˜ ์ฑ…์„ ๊ด€ํ†ตํ•ด ํ๋ฅด๋Š” ์ผ๊ด€๋œ ๋‚ด์šฉ, ์ง„๋ฆฌ, ์ „์ œ ๊ฐ™์€ ๊ฒƒ์€ ์• ์ดˆ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ ์—†๋‹ค. ์ฑ…์€ ๋…์ž์—๊ฒŒ ๋ชจ๋ฅด๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์„ ๊ฐ€๋ฅด์ณ์ฃผ๊ฑฐ๋‚˜ ํŠน์ •ํ•œ ๊ฐ๋™์„ ์ฃผ์ง€ ์•Š๋Š”๋‹ค. ๋…์ž๋Š” ๋‹จ์ง€ ์†์— ๋“ค๊ณ  ์žˆ๋Š” ์ฑ…์„ ์ฝ์Œ์œผ๋กœ์จ ์ง์ ‘ ๋ญ”๊ฐ€๋ฅผ ์ƒ์‚ฐํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ์„ ๋ฟ์ด๋‹ค. ๋ฐ”๋‘‘ ํ•œ ํŒ์„ ๋‘๋ฉด์„œ ๋Œ€๊ตญ์ž๋“ค์€ ์ˆ˜๋งŽ์€ ํŒ์„ ๋จธ๋ฆฟ์†์—์„œ ๋‘๋“ฏ์ด, ์–ด๋–ป๊ฒŒ ํŽธ์ง‘ํ•˜๋Š๋ƒ์— ๋”ฐ๋ผ ๊ฐ™์€ ํ•„๋ฆ„๋“ค์„ ๊ฐ€์ง€๊ณ  ์ˆ˜๋งŽ์€ ์˜ํ™”๋ฅผ ๋งŒ๋“ค์–ด ๋‚ผ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋“ฏ์ด, ํ•œ๊ถŒ์˜ ์ฑ…์€ ๋…์ž์˜ ๋จธ๋ฆฟ์†์—์„œ ์ˆ˜๋งŽ์€ ์ฑ…๋“ค์„ (์žฌ)์ƒ์‚ฐํ•œ๋‹ค.

๋…ํ•ด์˜ ํ•ด์ฒด๋ฅผ ํ†ตํ•ด ๋ฐ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค๋Š” ์ง€๋ฐฐ์  ๋…ํ•ด๊ฐ€ ํ–‰์‚ฌํ•˜๋Š” ์–ต์••์  ๊ถŒ๋ ฅ์„ ํ•ด์ฒดํ•˜๊ณ ์ž ํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ์•„๋ฆฌ์Šคํ† ํ…”๋ ˆ์Šค ์ดํ›„ ์„œ์–‘ ์‚ฌ์ƒ์‚ฌ์˜ ์ง€๋ฐฐ์  ํ๋ฆ„์€ ๋ฌธ์ž๋ฅผ ์Œ์„ฑ๋ณด๋‹ค, ๊ธ€์“ฐ๊ธฐ๋ฅผ ๋งํ•˜๊ธฐ๋ณด๋‹ค ์—ด๋“ฑํ•œ ๊ฒƒ์œผ๋กœ ๊ฐ„์ฃผํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ์ด์„ฑ์ด ํŒŒ์•…ํ•œ ์‚ฌ๋ฌผ์˜ ๋ณธ์งˆ์„ ๋ง๋กœ ํ‘œํ˜„ํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์ด ์ผ์ฐจ์ ์ธ ์žฌํ˜„์ด์—ˆ๊ณ , ๊ธ€์€ ์–ธ์ œ๋‚˜ ๋ถ€์ฐจ์ ์ธ ์žฌํ˜„์— ๋จธ๋ฌผ๋ €๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋‚˜ ๋ง์ด ๊ธ€๋กœ ๋ฐ”๋€Œ๋Š” ๋ฐ์„œ ํ•ด์„์€ ์–ต์••๋œ๋‹ค. ์„ฑ์„œ์˜ ์›๋ณธ๋ณด๋‹ค ์ˆ˜๋งŽ์€ ์ฃผ์„๋ณธ์ด ๋” ํฐ ์œ„๋ ฅ์„ ๊ฐ€์ง€๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์€ ๊ทธ ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์ด๋‹ค. ์ด๋ ‡๊ฒŒ ์–ต์••๋˜์–ด์˜จ ํ•ด์„์„ ๋ณต์›ํ•ด์„œ ๊ฐ์ถฐ์ง„ ๋ชฉ์†Œ๋ฆฌ๋ฅผ ๋“œ๋Ÿฌ๋‚ด๋Š” ๊ฒŒ ๋ฐ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค๊ฐ€ ์‹œ๋„ํ•˜๋Š” ์›๋Œ€ํ•œ ํ•ด์ฒด ๊ธฐํš์˜ ์š”์ฒด๋‹ค.(ํ‘ธ์ฝ”๊ฐ€ ๊ณ ๊ณ ํ•™์  ๋ฐฉ๋ฒ•์œผ๋กœ ํƒ€์ž์˜ ์นจ๋ฌต์„ ๋“œ๋Ÿฌ๋‚ด๊ณ ์ž ํ•œ ๊ฒƒ๊ณผ ๊ฐ™์€ ๋งฅ๋ฝ์ด๋‹ค).

์ „ํ†ต์ ์ธ ๋…ํ•ด๊ด€์—๋Š” ์–ต์••์  ๊ถŒ๋ ฅ์„ ๋ฐ”ํƒ•์œผ๋กœ ํ•ฉ์˜๋ฅผ ๊ฐ•์š”ํ•˜๋Š” ์ •์น˜์  ํ•จ์˜๊ฐ€ ์ˆจ์–ด ์žˆ๋‹ค. ํ…์ŠคํŠธ-๋ฐ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค๊ฐ€ ๋งํ•˜๋Š” ํ…์ŠคํŠธ๋ž€ ๋ฌธํ—Œ๋งŒ์ด ์•„๋‹ˆ๋ผ ์˜ํ™”, ์Œ์•… ๋“ฑ์˜ ์˜ˆ์ˆ , ์ •์ฑ…์ด๋‚˜ ๋ฒ•์˜ ํ˜•ํƒœ๋ฅผ ์ทจํ•˜๋Š” ๊ถŒ๋ ฅ์˜ ๋ฉ”์‹œ์ง€, ๋‚˜์•„๊ฐ€ ์ผ์ƒ์  ๋Œ€ํ™”๊นŒ์ง€๋„ ์•„์šฐ๋ฅด๋Š” ์˜๋ฏธ๋‹ค-์ž์ฒด๊ฐ€ ์•„๋‹ˆ๋ผ ํ…์ŠคํŠธ์˜ ํ•ด์„์ด ๊ถŒ์œ„์™€ ๊ถŒ๋ ฅ์„ ํ–‰์‚ฌํ•œ๋‹ค. ์˜ˆ๋ฅผ ๋“ค์–ด ํ•œ๊ตญ์ „์Ÿ์€ ๊ณผ๊ฑฐ์˜ ์‚ฌ๊ฑด์ด์ง€๋งŒ, ์ด ์ „์Ÿ์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ๋…ํ•ด๋Š” ์‹œ๋Œ€์— ๋”ฐ๋ผ ๋‹ฌ๋ผ์กŒ๊ณ  ํŠน์ •ํ•œ ๋ฐฉํ–ฅ์˜ ๋…ํ•ด๋Š” ๋ƒ‰์ „ ์‹œ๋Œ€์— ์–ต์••์  ๋ฐ˜๊ณต ์ด๋ฐ์˜ฌ๋กœ๊ธฐ๋ฅผ ์ƒ์„ฑํ•˜๋Š” ๋ฐ ํฌ๊ฒŒ ๊ธฐ์—ฌํ–ˆ๋‹ค.

์ง€๋ฐฐ์  ๋…ํ•ด์˜ ๊ฐ€์žฅ ํ•ด์•…์ ์ธ ์ธก๋ฉด์€ ๋ฐ”๋กœ ๋‹ค์–‘ํ•œ ๊ด€์ ์„ ์šฉ์ธํ•˜์ง€ ์•Š๋Š” ๋ฐ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์–ต์••์  ๊ถŒ๋ ฅ์€ ๋‹จ์ผํ•œ ๋…ํ•ด๋งŒ์„ ์ œ์‹œํ•˜๋ฉด์„œ ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์— ๋”ฐ๋ฅด๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์ด ์‚ฌํšŒ์  ํ•ฉ์˜์™€ ๋‹จ๊ฒฐ์„ ์ด๋ฃจ๋Š” ๊ธธ์ด๋ผ๊ณ  ๊ฐ•๋ณ€ํ•œ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋‚˜ ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์€ ๊ฐ•์š”๋œ ํ•ฉ์˜์ด๊ณ  ํŒŒ์‹œ์ฆ˜์ ์ธ ๋‹จ๊ฒฐ์ผ ๋ฟ์ด๋ฏ€๋กœ ํ•ด์ฒด์˜ ํƒ€๊นƒ์ด ๋œ๋‹ค.

2. ์„œ์–‘ ์‚ฌ์กฐ์˜ ๋ฐœ๋‹ฌ – ์ฒ ํ•™์—์„œ ์ •์น˜์‚ฌ์ƒ์˜ ๋“ฑ์žฅ(1800๋…„์ด์ „ ์‹œ๊ธฐ)

“๋‚ด์šฉ์—†๋Š” ์‚ฌ์œ ๋Š” ๊ณตํ—ˆํ•˜๊ณ  ๊ฐœ๋…์—†๋Š” ์ง๊ด€์€ ๋งน๋ชฉ์ ์ด๋‹ค.” – (์นธํŠธ์˜ ์ˆœ์ˆ˜์ด์„ฑ๋น„ํŒ). ์ด๋Š” ์„œ์–‘์˜ ๋‘ ์กฐ๋ฅ˜์˜€๋˜ ํ•ฉ๋ฆฌ๋ก ๊ณผ ๊ฒฝํ—˜๋ก ์„ ๋น„ํŒํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•œ ๊ฒƒ์ด์—ˆ๋‹ค. ๋Œ€๋ฅ™์„ ์ค‘์‹ฌ์œผ๋กœ ํ•œ ํ•ฉ๋ฆฌ๋ก ์€ ์ธ์‹ ์ฃผ์ฒด๋ฅผ ๊ฐ•์กฐํ–ˆ๊ณ , ์˜๊ตญ์—์„œ ๋ฐœ๋‹ฌํ•œ ๊ฒฝํ—˜๋ก ์€ ์ธ์‹ ๋Œ€์ƒ์— ๋” ํฐ ๋น„์ค‘์„ ๋‘์—ˆ๋‹ค. ๋”ฐ๋ผ์„œ ํ•ฉ๋ฆฌ๋ก ์€ ์‚ฌ๋ฌผ์—์„œ ์ „ํ•ด์ง„ ๊ฐ๊ฐ์ž๋ฃŒ์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ๊ฒฝํ—˜์ด ๊ณง ์ธ์‹์ด๋ผ๊ณ  ์—ฌ๊ฒผ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฐ๋ฐ ์นธํŠธ๋Š” ํ•ฉ๋ฆฌ๋ก ์  ์ „ํ†ต์„ ๋‚ด์šฉ ์—†๋Š” ์‚ฌ์œ ๋ผ๊ณ  ์ผ์ถ•ํ•˜๊ฑฐ, ๊ฒฝํ—˜๋ก ์  ์ „ํ†ต์„ ๊ฐœ๋…์—†๋Š” ์ง๊ด€์ด๋ผ๊ณ  ๋น„ํŒํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ์ฒ ํ•™์—์„œ ๋งํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฐœ๋…์€ ์ธ์‹ ๊ณผ์ •์— ๊ฐœ์ž…ํ•˜๋Š” ๊ด€๋…์˜ ์˜๋ฏธ์™€ ์—ฐ๊ด€๋œ๋‹ค. ํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ํ•™๋ฌธ๋“ค์—์„œ๋Š” ๊ฐœ๋…์ด ์ด๋ก ์„ ์ „๊ฐœํ•˜๋Š” ์ฃผ์š”ํ•œ ๋„๊ตฌ๋กœ ์‚ฌ์šฉ๋œ๋‹ค. ์ด๋ก ์€ ๊ฐœ๋…๋“ค์„ ๋…ผ๋ฆฌ์ ์œผ๋กœ ์—ฎ์€ ์ฒด๊ณ„๋ผ๊ณ  ๋ณผ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๋ฌผ๋ฆฌํ•™์€ ํž˜, ์šด๋™, ๋ฏธ๋ฆฝ์ž๋“ฑ์˜ ๊ฐœ๋…์„ ์‚ฌ์šฉํ•˜๋Š” ์ด๋ก  ์ฒด๊ณ„์ด๊ณ , ๊ฒฝ์ œํ•™์€ ์ƒ์‚ฐ, ์ด์œค, ๊ธˆ๋ฆฌ ๋“ฑ์˜ ๊ฐœ๋…๋“ค๋กœ ์ด๋ฃจ์–ด์ง„ ์ด๋ก  ์ฒด๊ณ„๋‹ค.

์ผ๋ฐ˜์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋งํ•ด ๊ฐœ๋…๋“ค์„ ์˜ฌ๋ฐ”๋กœ ๊ตฌ์‚ฌํ•˜๋ฉด ์ •ํ™•ํ•œ ์ด๋ก ์„ ๊ตฌ์„ฑํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ์˜ˆ๋ฅผ ๋“ค๋ฉด ์ž์œ ์ฃผ์˜ ์‚ฌํšŒํ•™์—์„œ๋Š” ์ค‘๊ฐ„๊ณ„๊ธ‰์ด๋ผ๋Š” ๊ฐœ๋…์„ ์‚ฌํšŒ์•ˆ์ •์— ํ•„์ˆ˜์ ์ธ ๊ณ„๊ธ‰์ด๋ผ๋Š” ๋œป์œผ๋กœ ์‚ฌ์šฉํ•˜๋ฉฐ, ๊ตญ๊ฐ€๋ผ๋Š” ๊ฐœ๋…๋„ ์‚ฌํšŒ๊ฐ€ ๋ฐœ์ „ํ•˜๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•œ ํ•„์ˆ˜์ ์ธ ๊ธฐ๊ตฌ๋กœ ๋ณธ๋‹ค.

17์„ธ๊ธฐ์— ๋“ค์–ด์™€์„œ ์ค‘์„ธ์˜ ์‹ (็ฅž)์ค‘์‹ฌ์œผ๋กœ ์‚ฌ๊ณ ๋˜๋˜ ์‚ฌํšŒ์— ๊ณ„๋ชฝ์ฃผ์˜๊ฐ€ ๊ทธ๋“ค์„ ๋ฐํžˆ๊ธฐ ์‹œ์ž‘ํ•œ๋‹ค. ๊ณ„๋ชฝ์ฃผ์˜(enlighten)๋ผ๋Š” ์˜๋ฏธ์™€ ๊ฐ™์ด ๊ทผ๋Œ€ ์ด์„ฑ์˜ ๋น›์œผ๋กœ ์ค‘์„ธ์˜ ์–ด๋‘ ์„ ๋ฐํžˆ๋Š” ์ง€์  ์šด๋™์ด ๋ฐœ์ƒํ–ˆ๋‹ค. 1517๋…„ ๋งˆ๋ฅดํ‹ด ๋ฃจํ„ฐ๊ฐ€ ๋น„ํ…๋ฒ ๋ฅดํฌ ๊ตํšŒ์˜ ๋Œ€๋ฌธ์— 95๊ฐœ์กฐ ๋ฐ•๋ฐ•๋ฌธ์„ ๋ถ™์ด๋ฉด์„œ ์‹œ์ž‘๋œ ์ข…๊ต๊ฐœํ˜์€ ์‹ ์„ ์ค‘์‹ฌ์œผ๋กœ ํ•˜๋Š” ๋ชจ๋“  ์‚ฌ๊ณ ๋ฐฉ์‹์„ ์ „๋ฉด์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋ถ€์ •ํ•˜๊ณ  ์ธ๊ฐ„์ค‘์‹ฌ์˜ ์ƒˆ ์‹œ๋Œ€๋ฅผ ์—ด์—ˆ๋‹ค.

ํ”„๋ž‘์Šค ์ˆ˜ํ•™์ž์ด์ž ์ฒ ํ•™์ž์ธ ๋ฐ์นด๋ฅดํŠธ๋Š” “๋‚˜๋Š” ์ƒ๊ฐํ•œ๋‹ค ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋ฏ€๋กœ ๋‚˜๋Š” ์กด์žฌํ•œ๋‹ค”๋Š” ์ฒ ํ•™์‚ฌ์ƒ์˜ ์œ ๋ช…ํ•œ ๋ช…์ œ๋ฅผ ํ†ตํ•ด ์ƒ๊ฐํ•˜๋Š” ์ธ๊ฐ„, ์ฆ‰ ์ด์„ฑ์„ ๊ฐ€์ง„ ์ฃผ์ฒด๋ฅผ ์ฒ ํ•™์˜ ์ถœ๋ฐœ์ ์œผ๋กœ ์‚ผ์•˜๋‹ค. ์ด๊ฒƒ์„ ๊ณ„๊ธฐ๋กœ ๊ทผ๋Œ€ ์ฒ ํ•™์€ ์‹ ์„ ๋…ผ์ฆํ•˜๋Š” ๋ฐ ์ดˆ์ ์„ ๋งž์ถ˜ ์ค‘์„ธ์˜ ์ฒ ํ•™-์‹ ํ•™์œผ๋กœ๋ถ€ํ„ฐ ์™„์ „ํžˆ ๊ฒฐ๋ณ„ํ•˜๊ณ , ์ด์„ฑ์˜ ํž˜์œผ๋กœ์จ ์„ธ๊ณ„์™€ ์ธ๊ฐ„ ์ž์‹ ์„ ํ•ด๋ช…ํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์„ ๊ณผ์ œ๋กœ ์„ค์ •ํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ์ดํ›„ ์ด์„ฑ ์ค‘์‹ฌ์˜ ๊ทผ๋Œ€์ฒ ํ•™์€ ๋Œ€๋ฅ™์˜ ํ•ฉ๋ฆฌ๋ก ๊ณผ ์˜๊ตญ์˜ ๊ฒฝํ—˜๋ก ์œผ๋กœ ๋‚˜๋‰˜์–ด ์ „๊ฐœ๋˜๋‹ค ์นธํŠธ์™€ ํ—ค๊ฒ”์—๊ฒŒ์„œ ์ข…ํ•ฉ๊ณผ ์™„์„ฑ์„ ์ด๋ฃจ๊ฒŒ ๋œ๋‹ค.

์ •์น˜์ ์œผ๋กœ ๊ณ„๋ชฝ์ฃผ์˜๋Š” ์ธ๊ฐ„ ์‚ฌํšŒ๊ฐ€ ํƒ„์ƒํ•˜๊ณ  ๋ฐœ์ „ํ•˜๋Š” ๋ฉ”์ปค๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜์—์„œ ์‹ ์˜ ์—ญํ• ์„ ๋ฐฐ์ œํ•˜๊ณ  ์ธ๊ฐ„ ์„œ๋กœ ๊ฐ„์˜ ์•ฝ์†์„ ์ค‘์‹œํ•˜๋Š” ์‚ฌํšŒ๊ณ„์•ฝ์˜ ์ด๋…์„ ๋‚ณ์•˜๋‹ค. ์‚ฌํšŒ๊ฐ€ ํ˜•์„ฑ๋˜๊ธฐ ์ด์ „์˜ ์ž์—ฐ ์ƒํƒœ์— ๊ด€ํ•ด ํ™‰์Šค์™€ ๋กœํฌ์˜ ๊ฒฌํ•ด๋Š” ์ •๋ฐ˜๋Œ€๋‹ค. ํ™‰์Šค๋Š” ์ž์—ฐ์ƒํƒœ๋ฅผ ๋ถ€์ •์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋ดค๊ณ , ๋กœํฌ๋Š” ์™„์ „ํ•œ ์ž์œ ๋ฅผ ๋ˆ„๋ฆฌ๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์œผ๋กœ ์ตœ์„ ์œผ๋กœ ์—ฌ๊ฒผ๋‹ค. ์ด๋ ‡๋“ฏ ์‚ฌํšŒ๋Š” ์‹ ์˜ ๋ช…๋ น์ด ์•„๋‹ˆ๋ผ ์ธ๊ฐ„์˜ ์ด์„ฑ์— ์˜ํ•ด ํƒ„์ƒํ–ˆ๊ธฐ ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์— ์‹ ์ด ์ง€๋ฐฐ์ž๋ฅผ ๋‚ด๋ ค์ฃผ์—ˆ๋‹ค๋Š” ์™•๊ถŒ์‹ ์ˆ˜์„ค ๋”ฐ์œ„๋Š” ์‰ฝ๊ฒŒ ๋ถ€์ •๋œ๋‹ค. 1688๋…„ ๋ช…์˜ˆํ˜๋ช…์œผ๋กœ ์˜๊ตญ์—์„œ ์—ญ์‚ฌ์ƒ ์ตœ์ดˆ์˜ ์˜ํšŒ๋ฏผ์ฃผ์ฃผ์˜ ์ฒด์ œ๊ฐ€ ์„ฑ๋ฆฝ๋œ ๊ฒƒ๊ณผ 1789๋…„ ํ”„๋ž‘์Šคํ˜๋ช…์œผ๋กœ ๋ฏผ์ฃผ์ฃผ์˜๊ฐ€ ์ถœํ˜„ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๋œ๋‹ค.

3. ๊ทผ๋Œ€ ์ •์น˜ ์‚ฌ์ƒ์˜ ๋ฐœ๋‹ฌ

๋ฐ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค์˜ ํ•ด์ฒด์ฃผ์˜ – destruction ๋‹จ์ˆœ ํŒŒ๊ดด๊ฐ€ ์•„๋‹Œ ์กฐ๋ฆฝ์„ ์œ„ํ•œ ํ•ด์ฒด(๊ธ์ •์ )๋ฅผ ๋งํ•œ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๊ฒƒ์€ ๋ฐ”๋กœ ์‹ ์ด๋‚˜ ์ด์„ฑ์— ์˜ํ•ด ์กฐ๋ฆฝ๋œ ์„ธ๊ณ„์ธ ์งˆ์„œ์™€ ์ค‘์‹ฌ๊ณผ ์ฃผ๋ณ€์„ ์ด์›ํ™” ์‹œํ‚จ ๊ฒƒ์„ ํ•ด์ฒดํ•˜๋Š”๊ฒƒ์„ ๋งํ•œ๋‹ค. ๋ฐ๋ฆฌ๋‹ค๋Š” ๋ชจ๋“  ์ค‘์‹ฌ center, ํ˜„์กด presence, ๊ทผ์› origin, ์ด์„ฑ์ค‘์‹ฌ์ฃผ์˜ logocentrism์„ ํ•ด์ฒดํ•˜๊ณ ์ž ํ–ˆ๋‹ค.

ํ‘ธ์ฝ”์˜ ํฌ์ŠคํŠธ๊ตฌ์กฐ์ฃผ์˜ – ํ‘ธ์ฝ”๊ฐ€ ์˜๋ฏธํ•˜๋Š” ๊ถŒ๋ ฅ์€ ๋‹จ์ˆœํžˆ ์ •์น˜๊ถŒ๋ ฅ์ด ์•„๋‹ˆ๋‹ค. ์˜คํžˆ๋ ค ํ‘ธ์ฝ”์˜ ๊ถŒ๋ ฅ์€ ์‚ฌํšŒํ˜„์ƒ ์†์—์„œ ํŽธ์žฌํ•˜๋Š” ๊ถŒ๋ ฅ๊ด€๊ณ„๋กœ ํ‘œํ˜„๋˜์–ด์•ผ ํ•  ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค. ํ‘ธ์ฝ”๋Š” ๋ชจ๋“  ๊ด€๊ณ„๋Š” ํ•„์—ฐ์ ์œผ๋กœ ๊ถŒ๋ ฅ๊ด€๊ณ„์ด๋ฉฐ, ์ธ๊ฐ„์˜ ์ œ์‹ค์ฒœ ์—ญ์‹œ ๊ถŒ๋ ฅ์˜ ํšจ๊ณผ์ž„์„ ์—ญ์„คํ•˜๋ฉด์„œ ์ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ ๊ถŒ๋ ฅ์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ์ดํ•ด๋ฅผ ์œ„ํ•ด ๊ถŒ๋ ฅ์„ ‘์ „๋žต’์œผ๋กœ ํŒŒ์•…ํ•˜๋Š” ์ƒˆ๋กœ์šด ์‹œ๊ฐ์„ ์ œ์‹œํ–ˆ๋‹ค. ์ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ ์—ฌ๋Ÿฌ ํ˜„์ƒ๋“ค ์†์—์„œ ๊ถŒ๋ ฅ์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ๋ถ„์„์ด ๊ฐ€๋Šฅํ•œ ๊ฒƒ์€ ํ‘ธ์ฝ”๊ฐ€ ๊ณ„๊ธ‰์˜ ์ ์œ  ๋Œ€์ƒ์œผ๋กœ์„œ์˜ ๊ถŒ๋ ฅ๊ฐœ๋…์„ ๋ถ€์ •ํ•˜๊ณ  ๊ถŒ๋ ฅ์„ ๊ณ„๊ธ‰์ด ์ฐจ์ง€ํ•˜๋Š” ์ „๋žต์  ์ž…์žฅ์˜ ์ด์ฒด์  ํšจ๊ณผ๋กœ ํŒŒ์•…ํ•˜๊ณ  ์žˆ๊ธฐ ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์ด๋‹ค.

ํ‘ธ์ฝ”์˜ ์  ์ž‘์—…์ด ๊ฐ–๋Š” ๋˜ ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ์˜์˜๋Š” ์งˆ๋ฌธ์˜ ์‹ฌ๊ธ‰์„ ‘๋ฌด์—‡์„’์ด๋‚˜ ‘์™œ’์—์„œ ‘์–ด๋–ป๊ฒŒ’๋กœ ๋ณ€ํ˜•์‹œ์ผฐ๋‹ค๋Š” ์ ์ด๋‹ค. ํฌ๋ž์ฒ ํ•™ ์ด๋ž˜ ์ด์„ฑ์€ ๋ฌด์—‡์ด๋ฉฐ ์ธ๊ฐ„์˜ ์กด์žฌ๋ฐฉ์‹์€ ์™œ ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌํ•œ๊ฐ€? ๋“ฑ์˜ ์งˆ๋ฌธ์— ๋Œ€ํ•ด ๋Œ€๋‹ตํ•˜๋ ค๊ณ  ํ–ˆ๋˜ ๋…ธ๋ ฅ๋“ค์€ ์‹ค์งˆ์ ์ธ ์ƒ์‚ฐ์„ฑ์„ ํ™•๋ณดํ•˜์ง€ ๋ชปํ–ˆ์—ˆ๋‹ค.

๋”ฐ๋ผ์„œ ์˜คํžˆ๋ ค ์ด์„ฑ์€ ์–ด๋–ป๊ฒŒ ๋ณ€ํ˜•๋˜์–ด ์™”๊ณ , ๋‹ด๋ก ์  ์‹ค์ฒœ์€ ์–ด๋–ป๊ฒŒ ์ด๋ฃจ์–ด์ง€๋ฉฐ, ๊ถŒ๋ ฅ์˜ ์ž‘์šฉ์€ ์–ด๋–ป๊ฒŒ ํšจ๊ณผ๋ฅผ ๋‚ณ๋Š”๊ฐ€๋ฅผ ์ฒœ์ฐฉํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์ด ํ˜„๋Œ€๋ฌธ๋ช…๊ณผ ๊ทธ๊ณณ์—์„œ ์‚ด์•„๊ฐ€๋Š” ์ธ๊ฐ„์˜ ์‹ค์ฒœ์„ ์ดํ•ดํ•จ์— ์žˆ์–ด ๋ณด๋‹ค ์ƒ์‚ฐ์ ์ธ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ๋ฅผ ๊ฐ€์ ธ์˜ฌ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์ด ํ‘ธ์ฝ”์˜ ๊ฒฌํ•ด์ด๋‹ค. ์ƒ์‚ฐ์„ฑ์„ ํ™•๋ณดํ•˜๊ณ ์ž ํ•˜๋Š” ํ‘ธ์ฝ”์˜ ์˜๋„๋Š” ํŠน์œ ์˜ ์‹ค์ฆ์ฃผ์˜(positivism)๋ฅผ ์„ฑ๋ฆฝ์‹œํ‚จ๋‹ค. ๊ถŒ๋ ฅ์ด ๋‹ค์–‘ํ•œ ๊ด€๊ณ„๋ง ์†์— ๋ถ„์‚ฐ๋˜์–ด ์žˆ๋‹ค๋Š” ์ž…์žฅ์„ ‘๊ฒฝํ—˜์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ์ •์น˜ํ•™’์„ ์š”๊ตฌํ•œ๋‹ค. ์—ฌ๊ธฐ์„œ ํ‘ธ์ฝ”์˜ ๊ฒฝํ—˜์€ ๊ฐœ๋ณ„์ž๋ฅผ ์ฃผ์ฒด๋กœ์„œ ์„ฑ๋ฆฝ์‹œํ‚ค๋Š” ๊ฐ๊ด€ํ™” ์ž‘์šฉ์„ ์˜๋ฏธํ•œ๋‹ค.

๊ฐ๊ด€ํ™” ์ž‘์šฉ์ด๋ž€ ๊ฐœ๋…๊ณผ ์ง€์‹์˜ ์˜์—ญ, ๊ทธ ์†์— ๋‚ด์žฌ๋œ ์‹ค์ฒœ๊ณผ ๊ทœ์น™์ด ์‹ค์ฒœ์„ ๋งค๊ฐœ๋กœ ํ•ด์„œ ์„ฑ๋ฆฝ๋˜๋Š” ๊ด€๊ณ„๋ฅผ ๋งํ•œ๋‹ค. ๊ฒฐ๊ตญ ํ‘ธ์ฝ”์˜ ์ž‘์—…์˜์–ต์€ ๋‹ด๋ก ๊ตฌ์„ฑ์ฒด๋กœ ํ‘œํ˜„๋˜๋Š” ์˜์—ญ์—์„œ ์ด๋ฃจ์–ด์ง€๋Š” ์ผ์ƒ์ ์ธ ๊ฒฝํ—˜๋“ค์†์— ๋“ค์–ด ์žˆ๋Š” ์ •์น˜์  ํšจ๊ณผ์ด๋‹ค. ์ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ ์ž‘์—…์„ ํ†ตํ•ด์„œ ํ‘ธ์ฝ”๋Š” ํ˜„์žฌ์˜ ์—ญ์‚ฌ๋ฅผ ๊ธฐ์ˆ ํ•˜๊ณ ์ž ํ•œ๋‹ค. ๋”ฐ๋ผ์„œ ํ‘ธ์ฝ”๋Š” ๋ชจ๋“  ์ž‘์—…์€ ์ง€์‹์˜ ์ƒ์‚ฐ์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ์ •์น˜์  ์—ญ์‚ฌ๋ฅผ ๊ธฐ์ˆ ํ•˜๋Š” ์ž‘์—…์ด๋ฉฐ, ์ง€๋‚˜๊ฐ„ ์‹œ๊ฐ„์˜ ์‹ค์ฒœ์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ์ดํ•ด๋ฅผ ํ† ๋Œ€๋กœ ํ˜„์žฌ์˜ ๋ชจ์Šต์„ ๊ธฐ์ˆ ํ•˜๋ ค๋Š” ๊ณ„๋ณดํ•™์  ๋˜๋Š” ๊ณ ๊ณ ํ•™์  ๋ถ„์„์ด ๋˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค.

์ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ ์ƒํ™ฉ์—์„œ ๊ณผ๋„์  ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๋ฐฉ๋ฒ•์˜ ๋Œ€๋‘(1900-1925)ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๋œ๋‹ค. ๋ฉ”๋ฆฌ์— (Charles Merriam)์„ ์ค‘์‹ฌ์œผ๋กœ ์‹œ์นด๊ณ (Chicago) ํ•™ํŒŒ๊ฐ€ โ€˜๊ณผํ•™์  ์ •์น˜ํ•™โ€™์„ ํ‘œ๋ฐฉํ•˜๋ฉฐ ์‹ฌ๋ฆฌํ•™๊ณผ ํ†ต๊ณ„ํ•™์˜ ์ค‘์š”์„ฑ์„ ๊ฐ•์กฐํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๋˜๋ฉฐ ์ด๋Š” ํ–‰ํƒœ์ฃผ์˜๊ฐ€ ๋“ฑ์žฅํ•˜๋Š” ๋ฐฐ๊ฒฝ์ด๋œ๋‹ค.

์ •์น˜ํ•™์˜ ํ–‰ํƒœ์ฃผ์˜์  ์ ‘๊ทผ(1925๋…„ ์ดํ›„) – ํ–‰ํƒœ์ฃผ์˜์˜ ๋“ฑ์žฅ ๋ฐฐ๊ฒฝ์„ ์‚ดํŽด๋ณด๋ฉด ๊ณผํ•™์  ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๋ฐฉ๋ฒ• ๋„์ž…๊ณผ ์ž์—ฐ๊ณผํ•™ ์˜์—ญ์˜ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๋ฐฉ๋ฒ•(ํ†ต๊ณ„ํ•™-์ˆ˜ํ•™)์—์„œ ๋‹ฌ์„ฑํ•œ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ ์„ฑ๊ณผ๋ฅผ ์‘์šฉํ•˜์—ฌ ๋ณด๋ ค๊ณ  ๋…ธ๋ ฅํ•˜๋ฉด์„œ ๋ฐœ์ƒํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๋œ๋‹ค. ํ–‰ํƒœ์ฃผ์˜ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๋ฐฉ๋ฒ•์˜ ํŠน์ง•์€ 60๋…„๋Œ€๋ฅผ ์ตœ์ •์ ์œผ๋กœ ํ•˜๋Š”๋ฐ ์ฒซ์งธ, ์ธ๊ฐ„์˜ ์ •์น˜์  ํ–‰๋™์˜ ์ผ๋ฐ˜ ๋ฒ•์น™์„ฑ ๋ฐœ๊ฒฌํ•œ๋‹ค. ๋‘˜์งธ, ํ˜„์ƒ์˜ ๋ถ„์„์„ ์œ„ํ•ด ๊ณ„๋Ÿ‰ํ™”(์„ค๋ฌธ์กฐ์‚ฌ๋ฅผ ํ†ตํ•ด ์ˆ˜์น˜ํ™”, ์˜ˆ:๋Œ€์„ ์ถœ๊ตฌ์กฐ์‚ฌ-์ •ํ™•์„ฑ)ํ•œ๋‹ค. ์…‹์งธ, ์ฃผ๊ด€์ ์ธ ๊ฐ€์น˜ํŒ๋‹จ์„ ๋ฐฐ์ œ(์ˆ˜์น˜๋Š” ์•ˆ๋ฐ”๋€œ, ๊ฐ€์น˜์ค‘๋ฆฝ์„ฑ ๊ฐ•์กฐ)ํ•œ๋‹ค. ๋„ท์งธ, ์‚ฌํšŒ๊ณผํ•™์˜ ์„œ๋กœ ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ํ•™๋ฌธ๋ถ„์•ผ์™€์˜ ์ƒํ˜ธ ํ˜‘์กฐ ํ•„์š”๋กœ ํ•œ๋‹ค. ์ด๋ฅผ ํ†ตํ•ด ์ข€๋” ๊ฐ๊ด€์ ์œผ๋กœ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ(Max Weber)ํ•˜๋ฉฐ ํˆฌํ‘œํ–‰ํƒœ, ์„ ๊ฑฐ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ ์˜ˆ์ธก ๋“ฑ์„ ํฌํ•จํ•˜์—ฌ ์ •์น˜์  ํ–‰๋™์˜ ์ค‘๋ฒ”์œ„ ์ด๋ก  ๊ฐœ๋ฐœ์— ์ƒ๋‹นํ•œ ๊ธฐ์—ฌํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๋œ๋‹ค. ์ด๋ฅผ ํ† ๋Œ€๋กœ ๊ฑฐ์‹œ์  ์ •์น˜์ด๋ก ๋“ค๋„ ๊ฒ€์ฆํ•˜๊ณ  ํ™•๋ฆฝ(ํ–‰ํƒœ์ฃผ์˜ ๊ธฐ๋ฐ˜) ํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๊ฒŒ๋œ๋‹ค.

ํ–‰ํƒœ์ฃผ์˜ ์ด๋ก  – ๊ตญ์ œ์ •์น˜์™€ ๊ตญ๋‚ด์ •์น˜๋กœ ๋‚˜๋ˆŒ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๊ตญ์ œ์ •์น˜๋Š” ๊ตญ์ œ์ฒด๊ณ„์ด๋ก , ์™ธ๊ต์ •์ฑ…๊ฒฐ์ •์ด๋ก (snyder) ํ†ตํ•ฉ์ด๋ก , Game์ด๋ก (์ œ๋กœ์„ฌ/non-์ œ๋กœ์„ฌ ๊ฒŒ์ž„)์ด๊ณ  ๊ตญ๋‚ด์ •์น˜๋Š” Communication์ด๋ก (์นผ ๋„์ด์น˜), ์ •์น˜๊ณผ์ •๋ก , ์ •์ฑ…๊ฒฐ์ •์ด๋ก . ์ •์น˜์ฒด๊ณ„ ๋ถ„์„์ด๋ก ๋กœ ๋‚˜๋ˆŒ ์ˆ˜ ์žˆ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋‚˜ ํ–‰ํƒœ์ฃผ์˜๋Š” ์ง€๋‚˜์นœ ๊ณผํ•™์„ฑ ๊ฐ•์กฐ๋กœ ์˜คํžˆ๋ ค ํ•™๋ฌธ์  ๋ณด์ˆ˜์ฃผ์˜๋ผ๋Š” ๋น„ํŒ์„ ๋ฐ›๊ณ  ์ •์น˜ํ˜„์‹ค์˜ ๋ณธ์งˆ๋ณด๋‹ค๋Š” ๋ถ„์„์˜ ๊ธฐ๊ต์— ์น˜์ค‘ํ•จ์ด ๋ฌธ์ œ์‹œ๋˜๋ฉฐ ์ง€๋‚˜์นœ ๊ฐ€์น˜์ค‘๋ฆฝ์˜ ์น˜์ค‘์œผ๋กœ ์ •์น˜์  ๋ชฉํ‘œ๋‚˜ ์ด์ƒ์„ ๊ฒฝ์‹œํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๋˜์–ด ํ›„๊ธฐ ํ–‰ํƒœ์ฃผ์˜๋ฅผ ๋ฐœ์ƒํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๋œ๋‹ค.

4. ๊ฒฐ๋ก 

ํ•ด์ฒด๋กœ ์ƒ์ง•๋˜๋Š” ํฌ์ŠคํŠธ๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜์€ ์šฐ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ๊ทธ๋™์•ˆ ๋‹น์—ฐํžˆ ์—ฌ๊ฒผ๋˜ ์‚ฌํšŒ์™€ ๋ชจ๋“  ํ˜•ํƒœ์— ์žˆ์–ด์„œ ์˜๋ฌธ์„ ๋˜์ง€๊ฒŒ ํ•˜์˜€๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ๊ทธ ๋ฌธ์ œ์ ์„ ํ’€๊ธฐ ์œ„ํ•ด์„œ ๋‹ค์–‘ํ•œ ์‚ฌ์ƒ์ด ๋“ฑ์žฅํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๋˜์—ˆ์œผ๋ฉฐ ์ฒด๊ณ„์™€ ๊ฐœ๋…์„ ๊ฐ–์ถฐ ํ•˜๋‚˜์˜ ์ด๋ก ์œผ๋กœ ์ •๋ฆฝ๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค. ์ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ๋กœ ์„œ๊ตฌ์˜ ํ•ฉ๋ฆฌ์ฃผ์˜์™€ ์ด์„ฑ์ฃผ์˜์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ์ˆ˜์ •์„ ๊ฐ€์ ธ์™”์œผ๋ฉฐ ๋” ๋‚˜์•„๊ฐ€ ๊ธฐ์กด์˜ ์‚ฌ์ƒ๊ณผ ์ฒด๊ณ„๋ฅผ ๋ถ€์ •ํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ๋ฅผ ๊ฐ€์ ธ์™”๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ์ด๋Š” ๋‹จ์ˆœํžˆ ์‚ฌ์กฐ์— ๊ทธ์น˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์ด ์•„๋‹Œ ์‚ฌํšŒ ์ „๋ฐ˜์ ์œผ๋กœ ์ธ๋ฌธ ์‚ฌํšŒ์˜ ์‚ฌํšŒํ•™, ์ฒ ํ•™, ์ •์น˜ํ•™์œผ๋กœ ์ถœ๋ฐœํ•ด์„œ ์˜ˆ์ˆ ๊ณผ ๊ฑด์ถ•์—๋„ ์ง€๋Œ€ํ•œ ์˜ํ–ฅ์„ ๋ฏธ์น˜๊ฒŒ ๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋‚œ ์ด๋Š” ๊ฒฐ์ฝ” ์ด์ „์— ์žˆ์—ˆ๋˜ ์ง„๋ฆฌ๋ฅผ ๋ถ€์ •ํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์€ ์•„๋‹ˆ๋ฉฐ, ๊ธฐ์กด์˜ ๊ฒƒ์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ๋‹จ์ˆœํ•œ ๋ฐ›์•„๋“ค์ž„์—์„œ ๋ฒ—์–ด๋‚˜ ์˜๋ฌธ๊ณผ ์ƒํ˜ธ๊ตํ™˜์„ ํ†ตํ•œ ์ƒˆ๋กœ์šด ๊ฒฐ๋ก ์„ ๋‚ณ์•˜๋‹ค๋Š” ์ ์—์„œ ์˜๋ฏธ๋ฅผ ๊ฐ€์ง„๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ์šฐ๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ๊ฐ€์ง„ ๊ตฌ์กฐ์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ํ•ด์ฒด๋ฅผ ๊ฐ€์ ธ์™€ ์˜คํžˆ๋ ค ๋” ์ž์—ฐ์Šค๋Ÿฌ์šด ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ๋ฅผ ๊ฐ€์ ธ์™”๋‹ค๋Š” ์ ์— ๊ณต๊ฐํ•œ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋‚˜ ์ด๋Š” ์œ„ ์‚ฌ์ƒ ์ž์ฒด๊ฐ€ ํ•˜๋‚˜์˜ ํ๋ฆ„์œผ๋กœ ๊ทธ์น  ๊ฒƒ์ด ์•„๋‹ˆ๋ผ ๋Š์ž„์—†์ด ์‚ฌํšŒ์— ๋งž์ถฐ์„œ ๋ณ€ํ™”๋˜์–ด์•ผ ํ•œ๋‹ค. ๋”ฐ๋ผ์„œ ํฌ์ŠคํŠธ๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ๋ช…ํ™•ํ•œ ์ •์˜๋ฅผ ๋‚ด๋ฆฌ์ง€ ๋ชปํ•œ ์ ์„ ๋ถ€๊ฐ์‹œ์ผœ ์ž์นซํ•˜๋ฉด ๊ทธ ์ค‘์‹ฌ์„ ์žƒ์ง€ ์•Š์„๊นŒ ์šฐ๋ ค๋œ๋‹ค.

>>๋ฏธํกํ•œ ์ ๋„ ๋งŽ๊ณ  ๋งŽ์€ ์‚ฌ์ƒ์ด ๋’ค์—‰์ผœ์„œ ๊ฒฐ๋ก ์„ ์ œ๋Œ€๋กœ ๋ชป๋‚ธ๊ฒƒ ๊ฐ™์•„์„œ ์•„์‰ฝ๋‹ค. ์•„์ง ๋ฐฐ์›Œ์•ผํ•  ์ ์ด ๋งŽ๊ณ  ๋ช…ํ™•ํ•œ ์ „๊ณต์„ ์„ธ์›Œ ๋†“์ง€ ์•Š์€ ์ƒํ™ฉ์ด๋ฏ€๋กœ ์—ฌ๊ธฐ์„œ ๋๋งบ์Œ์„ ํ•˜๊ณ ์ž ํ•œ๋‹ค. ๋ชจ๋“  ๋‚ด์šฉ์„ ๋’ค์ ธ๊ฐ€๋ฉฐ ์ „๋ถ€ ํƒ€์ดํ•‘ํ•˜๊ณ  ๊ทธ์ค‘์—์„œ ํŽธ์ง‘ํ•ด์„œ ๋‹ค์‹œ ์žฌ๋ฐฐ์—ดํ•˜๊ธฐ๊นŒ์ง€ ๋งŽ์€ ์‹œ๊ฐ„์ด ๊ฑธ๋ ธ๋Š”๋ฐ ๋…ธ๋ ฅํ•œ๋งŒํผ ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ๋ฌผ์ด ์ข‹์ง€์•Š์•„ ์•„์‰ฌ์›€์„ ๋‚จ๊ธด๋‹ค. 2007. 11. 1

์ฐธ๊ณ ๋ฌธํ—Œ

ํฌ์ŠคํŠธ๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜๊ณผ ์ฒ ํ•™/๊น€ํ˜œ์ˆ™/์ดํ™”์—ฌ๋Œ€์ถœํŒ๋ถ€/1995

ํฌ์ŠคํŠธ๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜๊ณผ ํฌ์ŠคํŠธ๊ตฌ์กฐ์ฃผ์˜/๊น€์šฑ๋™/ํ˜„์•”์‚ฌ/1991

ํฌ์ŠคํŠธ๋ชจ๋”๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜ ํ›„๊ธฐ ์ž๋ณธ์ฃผ์˜ ๋ฌธํ™” ๋…ผ๋ฆฌ/์ •์ •ํ˜ธ/ํ„ฐ/1989

์ •์น˜ํ•™์˜ ์ดํ•ด/์กฐ์šฉ์ƒ/๋ฐ•๋ฌธ๊ฐ/2006

์ •์น˜ํ•™/์ด๊ทน์ฐฌ/๋ฐ•๋ฌธ๊ฐ/2004

๊ทธ๋ฆผ์œผ๋กœ ์ดํ•ดํ•˜๋Š” ์ •์น˜์‚ฌ์ƒ/๊น€๋งŒ๊ถŒ/2005

๊ฐœ๋…์–ด์‚ฌ์ „/๋‚จ๊ฒฝํƒœ/๋“ค๋…˜/2007

์ฐธ๊ณ ์ž๋ฃŒ

๋„ค์ด๋ฒ„ ๋ฐฑ๊ณผ์‚ฌ์ „