๋ฃจ์ด??๋ฉˆํฌ?œ์˜ ?„์‹œ??

๋ฃจ์ด??๋ฉˆํฌ?œ์˜ ?„์‹œ??/div>
2007/08/23 16:02

http://ltk20.blog.me/130021595733

๋ฃจ์ด??๋ฉˆํฌ??L.Mumford, 1895~1990)

1)

?„์‹œ??๋ฐฐ์•„(?š่Šฝ)???ฑ์†Œ(?–ๆ?)?ด๋‹ค. ๊ณ?์ข…๊ต???ด๋ง๊ณ??ผ์›??์ข…๊ต??๊ตฌ์‹ฌ?์œผ๋ก??„์‹œ๊ฐ€ ์ถœํ˜„?˜์??? ?ฐ๋ผ???„์‹œ???ต์‹ฌ๊ตฌ์„ฑ?”์†Œ??? ์ „, ?œ์žฅ, ๊ทน์žฅ, ๋ณ‘์˜, ?™๊ต(?ฌ์ œ???ฌ์ƒ?ฐ๊ธฐ๊ด€) ?ฑ์ด?ˆ๋‹ค. ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋ฏ€๋ก??„์‹œ??1์ฐจ์  ๊ตฌ์„ฑ?์? ?? ?ฌ์ œ, ?™์ƒ, ?ธ์˜ˆ, ๊ตฐ์ธ ?ฑ์˜ ?น๊ถŒ๊ณ„๊ธ‰?ด์—ˆ๊ณ? ?ด๋“ค?€ ?ธ๋™?์„œ ๋ฉด์ œ?˜์—ˆ?? ๊ทธ๋ž˜??๊ฒฐ๊ตญ ?„์‹œ???˜๋…ธ???๋“ค??๊ณต๊ฐ„?™์ด?ˆ๋‹ค.

 

ยท๊ทธ๋ ‡๊ธ??Œ๋ฌธ???„์‹œ???์ดŒ?ด๋ผ??๋ฐ”๋‹ค ?„์˜ ?‘์? ?ฌ๊ณผ ๊ฐ™๋‹ค. ?„์‹œ???์ดŒ?ผ๋กœ๋ถ€??๋ฌผ์ž?€ ?ธ์žฌ๋ฅ??ผ๋ฐฉ?์œผ๋ก?๋นจ์•„?ค์ด??๊ณต๊ฐ„?ด๋ฉฐ ๋ฌธ๋ช…??์ง‘์ ?˜๋Š” ๊ฑฐ๋???์ฐฝ๊ณ ๊ฐ€ ?œ๋‹ค. ?ด๋Ÿฐ ๊ณผ์ •???ตํ•ด ?์ดŒ?€ ?•์ฒด??๊ณต๊ฐ„, ?„์‹œ??์ง„๋ณด??๊ณต๊ฐ„?ผ๋กœ ?๋ฆฌ๋งค๊??˜์???

 

 

2)

‘??‚ฌ ?์˜ ?„์‹œ??The City in History)???€?์ธ ๋ฃจ์ด??๋ฉˆํฌ?œ๋Š” ?™์œ„๋ฅ?๋ฐ›์? ?์ด ?†๋‹ค. ๋ฟ๋งŒ ?„๋‹ˆ???ฅ๊ธฐ๊ฐ?๊ต์œก?์˜ ์ง์œ„๋ฅ?๋งก์? ?๋„ ?†์œผ?? ?ถ์— ?€???˜์ง?‘๊ฒฝ?˜โ€™์„ ?ตํ•˜??๋ฐฉ๋????€???œ๋™???????ˆ์—ˆ??

 

๊ทธ์˜ ?˜์???„?œ๋ก ?™์? 20?ธ๊ธฐ ?„๋ฐ˜???˜์ „?๋„?œ๋ก ?™์„ ?ผ๋ฆฌ?์œผ๋ก?๊ณ„์Šน?˜๋ฉด??๊ฑฐ๋??„์‹œ??๋ถˆ๊ฒฐ???ผ์žก???€???ด๋‹ต???˜์???ณ„?์ด?ผ๋Š” ๊ฑฐ๋????„๋กœ๊ทธ๋žจ?™์ด?ผ๊ณ  ?˜์??? ์ง€??ณ„?์˜ ?ต์‹ฌ?•์‹ ?€ ?˜์ƒˆ๋กœ์šด ๋ณด์ „?™์— ?ˆ๋‹ค. ?์—ฐ?์›๊ณ??์„ ?ก๋Š” ?ธ๊ฐ„๊ฐ€์น˜์˜ ๋ณด์ „?ด๋ฉฐ, ? ์?๋ฅ??ฉํ?”์‹œ?ค์? ?Š๋Š” ?์†?์ธ ?์—…, ๋ฒŒ์ฑ„?˜์? ?Š๋Š” ?์†?์ธ ?„์—…, ๋ง‰์‚ฌ??๋ฌด๋‹จ ๋ถˆ๋ฒ• ์ฃผ๊ฑฐ์ง€๊ฐ€ ?„๋‹ˆ๊ณ? ?˜์•ž๋ง?๋ณด๊ณ  ?ฌ๋ฆฌ??์ปค๋??ˆํ‹ฐ???›๋œ ๊ฐ€???€? ์— ?ถ๊ณผ ?์œ , ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ??‰๋ณต ์ถ”๊ตฌ???Œ์‹ ?˜๋Š” ?์†?์ธ ?ธ๊ฐ„??์ปค๋??ˆํ‹ฐ๋ฅ?์ง€?ฅโ€™ํ•˜?๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์ด??

 

?„์‹œ?€ ๋ฌธํ™”(1938)

??์ฑ…์—??๊ทธ๋Š” ์ค‘์„ธ?„์‹œ??? ๊ธฐ??์ปค๋??ˆํ‹ฐ???ค์ฒด๋ฅ?๋ฐœ๊ฒฌ?œ๋‹ค. ๋ฉˆํฌ?œ๋Š” ์ค‘์„ธ?„์‹œ???ถ์—???‘๋™๊ณ?๊ณต์œ ???•์‹ ??์ฐพ์•˜?”๋ฐ, ?ด๊ฒƒ??์ค‘์„ธ ?„์‹œ???œ๋ ท???ต์ผ?ฑ๊ณผ ์งˆ์„œ๋ฅ??ด๋Œ???ธ๋‹ค๊ณ??˜์??? ๋ฉˆํฌ?œ๋Š” 15?ธ๊ธฐ?€ 18?ธ๊ธฐ ?ฌ์ด???„์‹œ?ค์ด ๋ณดํŽธ?ฑ์—??๊ท ๋“ฑ?ฑ์œผ๋ก? ์ง€??ฃผ?˜์—??์ค‘์•™์ง‘๊ถŒ?ผ๋กœ, ? ์— ?€???ˆ๋?์ง€?๊ถŒ?ค์—???ผ์‹œ???…๋ฆฝ?ผ๋กœ ๋ณ€?”ํ•˜??๊ฒƒ์„ ๊ด€์ฐฐํ•˜?€??

 

??‚ฌ?์˜ ?„์‹œ(1961)

??์ฑ…์? ?์ง•?์œผ๋ก??˜ํ•˜?˜์˜ ?ธ๊ณ„?™๋ผ ?????ˆ๋Š” ?˜๋„?œโ€™๋กœ ?œ์ž‘?˜์—ฌ ?ค์งˆ?์œผ๋ก??˜๋‚˜???„์‹œ๊ฐ€ ?˜์–ด๊ฐ€???ธ๊ณ„?˜๋กœ ?์„ ๋งบ๋Š”?? 4000???„์‹œ?ฌ๋? ?„์‹œ๋ฅ?๊ตฌ์„ฑ?˜๋Š” ๊ธฐ๋ณธ?์ธ ?•ํƒœ???ฑ๋ฒฝ, ์ฃผํƒ, ๊ฑฐ๋ฆฌ, ๊ด‘์žฅ ??๊ฐ€์ง€๋ฅ?์ง„ํ™” ์ถ”์ ?˜๋ฉด??๊ธฐ์ˆ ?˜์??”๋ฐ ?ฌ๊ธฐ???„๋??„์‹œ๊ฐ€ ๊ณต๊ณต๊ธฐ๋Šฅ๋ง?์ถ”๊ตฌ??๋ฟ??˜์‚ฌ?Œํ†ต๊ณ??‘๋ ฅ???˜ํ•œ ๊ณต๋™ ๋ชฉ์ ???Œํ?????์ฑ? ์ง์—…?์ธ ๊ณผ์ž‰ ?„๋ฌธ?”์? ๋ถ€?•์  ๊ณต์ƒ๊ด€๊ณ„๊? ๋งŒ์—ฐ?˜๊ณ  ?ˆ๋‹ค๊ณ?๊ฒฝ๊ณ„?œ๋‹ค. ?™์‹œ???„์ฒด๋ฅ?๋ณด์? ๋ชปํ•˜??๊ด€๋ฃŒ์  ์ฑ…์ž„์ฃผ์˜๋ฅ?๊ฒฝ๊ณ„?˜๊ณ  ?ตํ•ฉ???œ๊ฐ??๊ฐ•์กฐ?˜๋ฉด???„์‹œ??์ฃผ๋œ ๊ธฐ๋Šฅ?€ ?™ํž˜?˜์„ ?™ํ˜•?œโ€˜๋กœ, ?™์—?ˆ์??˜๋? ?™๋ฌธ?”โ€˜๋กœ, ?™์ฃฝ?ด์žˆ??๋ฌผ์งˆ?˜์„ ?™์˜ˆ? ์˜ ?ด์•„?ˆ๋Š” ?์ง•?˜์œผ๋ก? ?™์ƒ๋ฌผํ•™???ฌ์ƒ?ฐโ€˜์„ ?˜์‚ฌ?Œ์  ์ฐฝ์กฐ?ฑโ€™์œผ๋ก??„ํ™˜?œ์ผœ???œ๋‹ค๊ณ?์ฃผ์žฅ?œ๋‹ค.

๊ตฌ์ฒด?์œผ๋ก??„์‹œ๊ฐœ๋ฐœ??๊ต์™ธ??? ๊ฐœ๋ฐœ๋กœ ?•์‚ฐ?œํ‚ค?ค๊ณ ๋ง??˜์? ๋ง๊ณ , ? ๊ธฐ???์š”?? ?ค์–‘?? ์ฐฝ์กฐ?ฑ์˜ ๊ฐ€?ฅ์„ฑ??? ์žฌ?˜์–ด ?ˆ์–ด ๊ท??„์‹œ?ค์???๊ฐ„์ง?˜๊ณ  ?ˆ๋Š” ?„์‹ฌ??๊ด€?ฌ์„ ๊ธฐ์šธ?ฌ์•ผ ?œ๋‹ค๊ณ??˜์??? ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋ฉด์„œ???ผ๊??˜๊ฒŒ ๊ฐ•์กฐ?˜๋Š” ๋ฐ”๋Š”, ?„์‹œ?์„œ ๊ฒ‰์— ?œ๋Ÿฌ??๋ฌผ๋ฆฌ???์ง•๋ณด๋‹ค???ถ์˜ ์งˆ์ด?ผ๋Š” ๋ฐฐํ›„??์ง„๋ฆฌ๊ฐ€ ?œ๋Ÿฌ?˜์•ผ ?œ๋‹ค??๊ฒƒ์ด?? ?ด๋Š” ?ด๋– ???˜์ง‘?จ์  ๊ทœ์ œ?™๋ณด?ค๋„ ?˜์‚ถ??์งˆ์— ?€??๊ด€?ฌโ€™์ด ?ฐ์„ ?ด์•ผ ?จ์„ ๊ฐ€๋ฆฌํ‚ค??๊ฒƒ์ด??

 

?„์‹œ๊ฒฝ๊?(1968)

??์ฑ…์? ๊ฐ€์กฑ๊ณผ ๊ทผ๋ฆฐ??๊ฐ€์น??Œ๋ณต??๋ชฉ์ ?ผ๋กœ ?„์‹œ?ฌ๊ฑด ?ธ๋ ฅ???ด๋Œ?ด๋‚ผ ๊ฐ€์น˜์˜ ?ฌ์ •๋ฆฝ์„ ?”๊ตฌ?œ๋‹ค. ์ฆ? ?•์น˜?? ๊ฒฝ์ œ??๋ถ„์‚ฐ??๋น„๋กฏ?ด์„œ ?๋„ˆ์ง€ ?จ์œจ, ?‘์? ?ค์???๊ธฐ์ˆ , ?„์‹œ ๋ฐ?๊ฒฝ์ œ ?ฑ์žฅ???€???„๊ฒฉ???œํ•œ, ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ?๊ฑด์กฐ ๋ฐ??์—ฐ?˜๊ฒฝ??๋ณด์ „ ?ฑ์œผ๋ก??”์•ฝ?œ๋‹ค.

 

๋ฉˆํฌ???ฝ๊ธฐ???ค์›Œ?œ๋Š” ?„์‹œ๊ด€, ?„๋•??๊ฐœํ˜, ๊ท ํ˜•๊ณ??„์ฒด?ฑ์œผ๋ก??˜ํ??????ˆ๋‹ค. ?ฌ๊ธฐ??๊ท ํ˜•๊ณ??„์ฒด?ฑ์? ๋ชจ๋“  ?ค์–‘?ฑ๊ณผ ?ํ˜ธ?ฐ๊ณ„??๊ด€?์—???ฌ๋žŒ ?„์ฒด๋ฅ?๋ณธ๋ณด???˜์ด์ฒด์  ?ฌ๊ณ  ?๋Š” ?์—ฐ???ค๋ฃจ???๋ฌผ?™์ž???ํƒœ???ฌ๊ณ ?™๋? ์ฃผ์ฐฝ??? ๊ฐ?์ด?? ์ฆ??˜๋‚˜??์ฃผํƒ?ด๋“  ?˜๋‚˜??๊ฑด๋ฌผ?ด๋“ , ?˜๋‚˜???„์‹œ?ด๋“  ?์‹ ???ค๋ฃจ??์ฃผ์ œ๋ฅ?๋ณด๋‹ค ?“์? ๋ฌธํ™”??๋งฅ๋ฝ ?์—???ค๋ฃจ๊ณ ์ž ?ˆ๋‹ค. ?ด๋Š” ๋งˆ์น˜ ?ˆ์ˆ ???ฌํšŒ?€ ๊ฒฉ๋ฆฌ??์ฑ??œ์ˆ˜?˜๊ฒŒ ?ดํ•ด?????†๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์ฒ˜???„์‹œ?€ ๊ฑด์ถ•??๊ทธ๊ฒƒ?ค์„ ๋งŒ๋“ค?ด๋‚ด??๋ฌธ๋ช…๊ณ?๊ด€?จํ•ด ?ธ์‹?˜์–ด?ผ๋งŒ ?œ๋‹ค??๊ฒƒ์ด??

 

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