루이??멈퍼?œì˜

ê·¼ë???부?œí•œ ?œì–‘ ??°°? ‘?????¤ê°?•ì„ 멈춰??

[?¥ì„ì¤€??’?ë¡ ?œìž¬’] 루이??멈퍼?œì˜ <기계??? í™” 2>

?¥ì„ì¤€ 글로벌?•ì¹˜ê²½ì œ?°êµ¬???ë¬¸?„원

기사?…ë ¥ 2013-02-01 ?¤í›„ 6:59:47

‘루이??멈퍼???¼ëŠ” ?´ë¦„??처음 ?‘í•œ 것ì? ?ë¦¬???„롬??책에?œì??? ?„롬?€ ?¤ë¥¸ ?€?ë“¤???¸ìš©?????¸ë¶ˆ?¸ê? 분명???¬ëžŒ?´ì—ˆ?? ì¹´ë? 마르?¬ìŠ¤, 지그문???„ë¡œ?´íŠ¸, 바루?????¤í”¼?¸ìž 그리고Â?a href=”http://www.pressian.com/books/article.asp?article_num=50130201170356&Section=02&#8243; target=”_blank”>마이?¤í„°Â ?í¬?˜ë¥´?? ?´ëŸ° ?´ë¦„?¤ì? 그에ê²???ƒ ?´ë‘” 밤하?˜ì„ 밝히??빛나??별과??같았??

?˜ì?ë§??„롬???™ì‹œ?€ ?€?ë“¤ 중에???´ëŸ° ?€?‘을 받ì? ?´ëŠ” 별로 ?†ì—ˆ?? ?„ë?ë¡??˜ì–´?¬ìˆ˜ë¡??„롬?€ ?¤ë¥¸ ?€?ë“¤???€???„격??비평???£ë?ë¥??¤ì´?”다. ?œë•Œ ?„ëž‘?¬í‘¸ë¥´íŠ¸?™íŒŒ ?™ë£Œ?€???ˆë²„??마르쿠제조차??? ëž„??비판 ?€?ì´ ?ë‹¤.

?¬ê¸°???ˆì™¸ê°€ ?ˆì—ˆ?? ê·??¬ëžŒ??바로 멈퍼?œë‹¤. ?„롬?€ ??막역?œÂ?a href=”http://www.pressian.com/books/article.asp?article_num=50130201170356&Section=02&#8243; target=”_blank”>?™ì?처럼 그의 ?´ë¦„ê³??€?‘을 ?¸ìš©?˜ê³¤ ?ˆë‹¤. 마치 ?„ë? ?¬íšŒ??병리???€???ì‹ ?˜Â?a href=”http://www.pressian.com/books/article.asp?article_num=50130201170356&Section=02&#8243; target=”_blank”>진단과Â?a href=”http://www.pressian.com/books/article.asp?article_num=50130201170356&Section=02&#8243; target=”_blank”>?€??/a>???·ë°›ì¹¨í•  가??강력???êµ°?¼ë¡œ ?¬ê¸°????–ˆ?? 그래???„롬???´ì„± ?…자?¼ë©´ 멈퍼?œë„ ??ë²??½ì–´ë³´ê³  ?¶ë‹¤?”Â?a href=”http://www.pressian.com/books/article.asp?article_num=50130201170356&Section=02&#8243; target=”_blank”>?ê°???¤ì? ?Šì„ ???†ì—ˆ??

그런?°ë„ 멈퍼?œëŠ” ?¤ëž«?™ì•ˆ ?°ë¦¬ê°€ ?½ê²Œ ?‘ê·¼?????†ëŠ” ?€?ì??? 몇십 ????그의 ?€???œë‘ 권과 ? ì§‘??출판???ì´ ?ˆìœ¼??지금ì? ?„서관?´ë‚˜Â ?Œì±…ë°?/a>?ì„œ??찾기가 ?¹ë¡ì¹??Šë‹¤. ?ì–´???œêµ­?ì„œ 그는 ?¤ëž˜ ?„에 망각???¬ìƒê°€?€??

그러??것이 ëª????„ë???분위기ê? 바뀌기 ?œìž‘?ˆë‹¤. ?ìŠ¤??출판?¬ì—??2010?„ë???’루이??멈퍼???œë¦¬ì¦?ë¥??´ê¸° ?œìž‘??것이?? 그러면서 주요 ?€??<? í† ?¼ì•„ ?´ì•¼ê¸?gt;(박홍ê·????), <?ˆìˆ ê³¼Â?a href=”http://www.pressian.com/books/article.asp?article_num=50130201170356&Section=02&#8243; target=”_blank”>기술>(박홍ê·????), <?¸ê°„???„환>(박홍ê·????) ?±ì´ ?°ë¦¬ë§ë¡œ ?Œê°œ?˜ì—ˆ?? 그리ê³??‘ë…„ 말에???œë””??결정???€??<기계??? í™” 2 : 권력???œí?ê³?gt;(김종달 ???, 경북?€?™êµì¶œíŒë¶€ ?´ëƒ„) êµ?—­ë³¸ì´ ?˜ì™”??

기술 비판?ì„œ 기계 비판?¼ë¡œ

루이??멈퍼?œëŠ” 버트?°ë“œ ?¬ì??´ë‚˜ ?ë¦­ ?‰ìŠ¤ë´„만?¼ì´???¥ìˆ˜???¸ë¬¼?´ë‹¤. ?„직 19?¸ê¸°?€??1895?„Â?a href=”http://www.pressian.com/books/article.asp?article_num=50130201170356&Section=02&#8243; target=”_blank”>미국 ?´ìš•?ì„œ ?œì–´??20?¸ê¸°ê°€ ?ë‚˜ê°?무렵??1990?„에 ?¬ë§?ˆë‹¤. ?°ë¦¬??경우 ?´ë ‡ê²?ê¸??œë???걸쳐 ?ì¡´?˜ë©° ?œë™???¬ìƒê°€ë¡œÂ?a href=”http://www.pressian.com/books/article.asp?article_num=50130201170356&Section=02&#8243; target=”_blank”>?¨ì„?Œì´ ?ˆë‹¤.

멈퍼?œì? ?¨ì„?Œì˜ 비슷???ì? ?´ë¿ë§Œì´ ?„니?? ?¨ì„?Œì´ 60~70?€??그의 가???ˆì •???¬ìƒ‰???Ÿì•„??것처??멈퍼????‹œ 70??바라보는 ?˜ì´???€?œìž‘ <기계??? í™”> 1, 2부ë¥??ˆë‹¤.

???¤ë¥¸ 공통?ì? ?„무지 ???¨ì–´ë¡?규정?????†ëŠ” ?¤ì±„로운 ?´ë ¥?´ë‹¤. ?¨ì„?Œì? 종교?¸ì´ê¸°ë„ ?ˆê³  ?œì¸?´ê¸°???ˆìœ¼ë©??¬íšŒ?´ë™ê°€?´ê¸°???ˆë‹¤. ??ì¤??´ëŠ ?˜ë‚˜??ê·¸ë? ?•ì˜?˜ê¸°?ëŠ” ??맞ì? ?Šì•„??ê·¸ì? ‘?¬ìƒê°€’, ì¦?’?ê°???¬ëžŒ’ ?•ë„ë¡??Œê°œ?˜ëŠ” ê²??ì ˆ?˜ë‹¤.

멈퍼?œë„ 마찬가지?? 브리?œë‹ˆì»?백과?¬ì „?€ 멈퍼?œë? ‘?¬íšŒ?™ìž, ?€? ê?, 교사‘?¼ê³  ?Œê°œ?œë‹¤. ?˜ì?ë§??˜ì—´?˜ê¸°ë¡??œë‹¤ë©??´ê²ƒë§Œìœ¼ë¡œëŠ” 부족하?? ?„ì‹œ 계획가, 비평가, 철학?? ?¬íšŒ?´ë™ê°€?? ?ì´ ?†ë‹¤. 그래??ê·???‹œ??ê·¸ì? ‘?¬ìƒê°€’?¼ê³  ?˜ëŠ” ê²?가???´ìš¸ë¦°ë‹¤. (멈퍼?œì˜ ?ì• ???€?´ì„œ??<메트로폴리탄 게릴?? 루이??멈퍼??gt;(박홍규Â?a href=”http://www.pressian.com/books/article.asp?article_num=50130201170356&Section=02&#8243; target=”_blank”>지??/a>, ?ìŠ¤???´ëƒ„)ë¥?참고?????ˆë‹¤.)

멈퍼?œì˜ ?´ëŸ¬???„인(?¨äºº)??면모???´ëŠ ?•ë„ 그의 ?¼ìƒ???¤ìŠ¹, ?¨íŠ¸ë¦?게디??1854~1932)로ë???물려받ì? 것이?ˆë‹¤. 게디?¤ëŠ” ?¤ì½”?€?œë“œÂ ì¶œì‹ ???¬íšŒê³¼í•™?ë¡œ?? 기존 ?™ë¬¸ 분과?¤ì„ ?˜ë‚˜?¤ë©° ?ˆë¡œ???°êµ¬ ?ì—­??개척???¸ë¬¼?´ë‹¤. ê·¸ê? 개척??? ë?륙ì? 진화론을 ?µí•´ 비약?ìœ¼ë¡?발전?œÂ?a href=”http://www.pressian.com/books/article.asp?article_num=50130201170356&Section=02&#8243; target=”_blank”>?ë¬¼??/a>???µì°°?¥ì„ ?¸ê°„ ?¬íšŒ???ìš©?˜ëŠ” 것이?ˆë‹¤.

?? 그는 ?ˆë²„???¤íŽœ?œì²˜???ìž?ì¡´?¤ì„ 주창??ê²??„니???œíŠ¸ë¥??¬ë¡œ?¬íŠ¸?¨ì˜ ?¸ì„ (<만물?€ ?œë¡œ ?•ëŠ”??gt;(김?ë²” ???, 르네?ìŠ¤ ?´ëƒ„))???°ë¼ ?í˜¸ë¶€ì¡°ì˜ 측면??강조?ˆë‹¤. 그래???±ìž¥??ê²??¸ê°„ê³??¸ê°„, ?¸ê°„ê³??˜ê²½ ?¬ì´???í˜¸?‘ìš©??주목?˜ëŠ” ?¬íšŒ ?íƒœ?™ì´?ˆë‹¤. 게디?¤ì˜ ?íƒœ?™ì? ?´í›„ 구체?ì¸ ?„ì‹œ 계획론으ë¡?발전?ˆê³ , ê·??¤ì²œ?¼ë¡œ ?„원?„ì‹œ?´ë™???¼ì¹˜ê¸°ë„ ?ˆë‹¤.

멈퍼?œëŠ” 게디?¤ì˜ ?¬ìƒ??충실???´ì–´ë°›ì•˜?? 그래??그는 무엇보다???„ì‹œ ?´ë¡  ë°?계획 분야?ì„œÂ ëª…성???“았?? ?í•œ 게디?¤ë? ?µí•´ ?¬ë¡œ?¬íŠ¸?¨ì˜ ?„나?¤ì¦˜ 그리ê³??¸ë™?´ë°©???„원공동체의 부?œê³¼ ?°ê²°?œí‚¨ ?Œë¦¬??모리?¤ì˜ ?…특???¬íšŒì£¼ì˜ ?¬ìƒ??받아?¤ì´ê¸°ë„ ?ˆë‹¤. 만년???€?‘인 <기계??? í™” 2> 곳곳?ì„œ???´ë“¤??깊ì? ?í–¥??감ì??????ˆë‹¤.

멈퍼?œê? ?„ì‹œ ?°êµ¬??몰두?˜ë©´???™ì‹œ?????¤ë¥¸ ?„생???°êµ¬Â ê³¼ì œë¡?천착??것ì? 기술 문제?€?? 그는 ?„ë? 문명??? ë?ë¥??´ë£¨??기술 발전 과정??주목?˜ë©´??거기?ì„œ ?„ë? ?¬íšŒ???°ì›ê³??„개 방향, ?±ê³¼?€ ?œê³„ë¥??½ì–´?´ë ¤ ?ˆë‹¤. 그리ê³?기술ê³??ˆìˆ , 중세 기술ê³??„ë? 기술???œë¡œ 비교?˜ë©´???ì°¨ ?„ë? 문명 ?„ë°˜???€??비판?¼ë¡œ ?˜ì•„갔다. ê·????±ê³¼ê°€ <?ˆìˆ ê³?기술>?´ë‹¤.

멈퍼?œì˜ 기술 문명 비판?€ ‘ê±°ë? 기계’ 비판?ì„œ ?•ì ???´ë¥´?€?? 그는 ê³ ë? 문명???ˆì™¸ ?†ì´ ?±ìž¥??ê±°ë???? ëª© 구조물들(가?¹Â?a href=”http://www.pressian.com/books/article.asp?article_num=50130201170356&Section=02&#8243; target=”_blank”>?´ì§‘??/a>?˜Â?a href=”http://www.pressian.com/books/article.asp?article_num=50130201170356&Section=02&#8243; target=”_blank”>?¼ë¼ë¯¸ë“œ)??주목?ˆë‹¤. ?´ê²ƒ?€ ?„ì²­??기술 발전???°ë¬¼?´ì?ë§? ?´ê²ƒ??좁ì? ?˜ë???기술로만 ?´í•´?˜ë ¤ê³??˜ë©´ 벽에 부?ªížˆê²??œë‹¤.

ê±°ë? 구조물을 축조??기술?€ 그것 ?ì²´ë§Œìœ¼ë¡œëŠ” ?¤í˜„?????†ì—ˆ?? 고달???¸ì—­???˜ë?ë¥?부?¬í•´ì¤??ì§• 체계가 ?ˆì–´???ˆê³ , ?„ì²­??규모?˜Â?a href=”http://www.pressian.com/books/article.asp?article_num=50130201170356&Section=02&#8243; target=”_blank”>?¸ë ¥Â ?™ì›??가?¥í•˜ê²????¬íšŒ???¥ì¹˜?¤ì´ ?„ìš”?ˆë‹¤. ê·??ì§• 체계???¸ê°„???„니???œì–‘?ì„œ ?°ì£¼??중심??찾는 ?œì–‘ ??°° ? ì•™?´ì—ˆê³? ê·??¬íšŒ???¥ì¹˜???„ì œ 군주?? 군사 êµ?? 그리ê³??¸ì˜ˆ?œì???

멈퍼?œëŠ” ?´ëŸ¬???¬íšŒ?Â?a href=”http://www.pressian.com/books/article.asp?article_num=50130201170356&Section=02&#8243; target=”_blank”>?”소?¤ì´ ê³ ë? 기술ê³??œë¡œ 결합???˜ë‚˜??’ê±°ë? 기계’ë¥?구성?ˆë‹¤ê³?보았?? ?¸ë¥˜ 문명???´ë–¤ êµ?©´?ì„œ ?Œì—° ê±°ë? 기계?¤ì´ ?±ìž¥??것이?? ?¼ë¼ë¯¸ë“œ 같ì? 기적?ì¸Â ê±´ì¶•ë¬?/a>??만들?´ë‚¸ 것ì? ?¤ë¦„ ?„ë‹Œ ??ê±°ë? 기계???˜ì´?ˆë‹¤.

?˜ì?ë§??¸ê°„??ê±°ë? 기계??부?í’ˆ????ê²°ê³¼??참혹?ˆë‹¤. “계급 구조, ?‰ìƒ ?™ì•ˆ????•  ê³ ì°©, ? ì????…점, 경제??교육??기회???…점, ?¬ì‚°ê³??¹ê¶Œ??불평?? ?¸ì˜ˆ?œë„??고질?ì¸ ?¼ë§Œ?? ?„쟁, ?ë ¤?€, 강박관?? ?µì¹˜ê³„급?˜Â?a href=”http://www.pressian.com/books/article.asp?article_num=50130201170356&Section=02&#8243; target=”_blank”>ê³¼ë?망상???¼ë§, 그리ê³?극단?ì¸ ?€???Œê´´?€ ?€???´ìƒ”(<기계??? í™” 2>, 40ìª????¤ë”°?ë‹¤. 고스?€???„ë??˜Â?a href=”http://www.pressian.com/books/article.asp?article_num=50130201170356&Section=02&#8243; target=”_blank”>질병?´ê¸°?????´ë“¤ 병폐??ê²°êµ­ ?¸ì˜ˆ 반ë?ê³?문명?˜Â?a href=”http://www.pressian.com/books/article.asp?article_num=50130201170356&Section=02&#8243; target=”_blank”>?´ì²´?¼ëŠ” ??’??불러?”다.

멈퍼?œëŠ” ??격ë??ì„œ, ì¹´ë? ?¼ìŠ¤?¼ìŠ¤ê°€ ‘차축 ?œë?’?¼ê³  부ë¥??„환기의 ?˜ë?ë¥??½ëŠ”?? ?¼ìŠ¤?¼ìŠ¤?”Â?a href=”http://www.pressian.com/books/article.asp?article_num=50130201170356&Section=02&#8243; target=”_blank”>중동, ?¸ë„, 중국, 그리????ê³ ë? 문명 곳곳?ì„œ 비슷???œê¸°?Â?a href=”http://www.pressian.com/books/article.asp?article_num=50130201170356&Section=02&#8243; target=”_blank”>?ˆì–¸??/a>, 깨달?€ ?? ?„인?¤ì´ ?±ìž¥?˜ê³  ?¤ëŠ˜? ì˜ 모든 고등 종교?€ 철학???????œê¸°???°ì›???ê³  ?ˆë‹¤???¬ì‹¤??주목?ˆë‹¤. 그는 ???œê¸°ê°€ ?¸ë¥˜ 문명??모든 바í€?/a>?´ì´ 거슬???¬ë¼ê°€???ì ê³?같다ê³??˜ì—¬ ‘차축 ?œë?’???´ë¦„ 붙ì???

멈퍼?œëŠ” 차축 ?œë???종교?€ 철학??ê±°ë? 기계???€???¸ê°„??반성ê³??€?? 극복 과정?ì„œ ?˜ì˜¨ 것이?¼ê³  보았?? ?´ë“¤ 모두???œì–‘???„니???¸ê°„?¼ë¡œ ?ˆì„ ?Œë ¸ê³?ê±°ë? 기계??참여?˜ê¸¸ ê±°ë??ˆìœ¼ë©??ˆë¡­ê²?구성??공동체로부??문명???¤ì‹œ ?œìž‘?˜ë ¤ ?ˆë‹¤. ?´ë? ?µí•´ ê³ ë???ê±°ë? 기계???¼ë‹¨ 무너졌다.

멈퍼?œëŠ” <기계??? í™” 1 : 기술ê³??¸ê°„ 발전>?ì„œ ?´ëŸ¬??ê±°ë??œÂ?a href=”http://www.pressian.com/books/article.asp?article_num=50130201170356&Section=02″ target=”_blank”>??‚¬Â ?œë¼ë§?/a>ë¥??„ê°œ?ˆë‹¤. ?„쉽게도 ??책ì? ?„직 ?°ë¦¬ë§ë¡œ 번역?˜ì? ?Šì•˜ì§€ë§? ?°ë¦¬??<?¸ê°„???„환>(박홍ê·????, ?ìŠ¤???´ëƒ„)?ì„œ ê·¸Â?a href=”http://www.pressian.com/books/article.asp?article_num=50130201170356&Section=02″ target=”_blank”>?•ì¶•?ì„ ?½ì„ ???ˆë‹¤.

부?œí•œ ê±°ë? 기계 – 권력???œí?ê³?/b>

<기계??? í™” 2>??1부?ì„œ ?¼ë‹¨ ?´ì²´?˜ì—ˆ??ê±°ë? 기계가 ?¸ë¥˜?¬ì—???¬ì¶œ?„하??과정???¤ë£¨ê³??ˆë‹¤. ??책에???•ê¶Œ?€ ????’?œì–‘? ì˜ ?¬ë¦¼’?ì„œ ????’기술로서??과학’???´ë¥´??부분이?? ??4ê°??¥ì? ?œêµ¬?¸ë“¤??’르네?ìŠ¤’, ‘과학?ëª…’ ?±ì˜ ?´ë¦„??붙이ë©?ì¹?†¡?˜ëŠ” 16?¸ê¸°~18?¸ê¸° 지?±ì‚¬??진상??무엇?¸ì? ?Œê³ ? ë‹¤. ?€?ê²Œ??멈퍼?œëŠ” 그것??’?œì–‘ ??°° ? ì•™??부???´ë¼ 규정?œë‹¤.

?©ë‹¹?˜ê²Œ ?¤ë¦´ì§€ 모르겠다. ?°ë¦¬?˜Â?a href=”http://www.pressian.com/books/article.asp?article_num=50130201170356&Section=02&#8243; target=”_blank”>?ì‹Â ?ì— ???œê¸°??천동?¤ì˜ 미신??맞서 지?™ì„¤??과학???¹ë¦¬???œë?, ?„ë???계몽???œë??? ?ˆì½œ?¼ìš°??코페르니쿠스, 갈릴?ˆì˜¤Â ê°ˆë¦´?ˆì´, ?”하?¤ìŠ¤ 케?ŒëŸ¬ 그리ê³??„ëžœ?œìŠ¤Â ë² ì´ì»?/a>?€ ???œë???빛나???ì›…?¤ì´?? 그런??멈퍼?œëŠ” ?´ë“¤??마치 ê³ ë? ?„ì œ 체제가 그랬??것처???¸ìƒ??중심???¸ê°„ ?ì‹ ???„ë‹Œ 바깥 ?¸ê³„?ì„œ 찾고 ?´ë? ?„í•´ ?¸ê°„?±ì— ?€??관?¬ì„ ?¬ìƒ?œí‚¤????• ???ˆë‹¤ê³?규탄?œë‹¤.

“물질?¸ê³„?€ ???¸ê³„???´ê³  ?ˆëŠ” ?¸ê°„???¨ìˆœ???‘ê³¼ ?´ë™???ì‚°ë¬¼ë¡œ ?´í•´?˜ê¸° ?„í•´???°ë¦¬???´ì•„ ?ˆëŠ” ?í˜¼???œê±°?´ì•¼ ?œë‹¤. ?ˆë¡œ???¸ê³„?ì˜ 중심???¸ê°„?€ 존재?˜ì? ?Šìœ¼ë©? 존재???´ìœ ê°€ ?†ê²Œ ?œë‹¤.

측정?????†ì„ 만큼 ?¤ëžœ ??‚¬ë¥?가ì§??‰ì„± ?„에??ê¸???‚¬ë¥?가지ê³??ˆëŠ” ?¸ê°„ ?€? ì—, 불임?”된 지??/a>???¹ì • ?ì‚°ë¬¼ì¸ 과학???´ë¡ ê³?기계만이 ?êµ¬?ì¸ 지?„나 ?’ì? ?˜ì????¤ì œë¥??”구?????ˆë‹¤. 객ê??±ì— ?€??관?¬ì—?? ?ˆë¡œ??과학?€ ??‚¬?ì¸ ?¸ê°„ê³?그의 모든 주ê??ì¸ ?‰ìœ„ë¥??œê±°?ˆë‹¤. 갈릴?ˆì´???œë? ?´í›„ë¡??´ëŸ¬???¤í–‰?€ ‘객ê??ì¸ 과학’?¼ë¡œ ?Œë ¤???ˆë‹¤.” (86~87ìª?

?´ëŸ¬??지???„환 과정?€ ?¬ë¬¼???˜ëŸ‰ 중심?¼ë¡œ ?Œì•…?˜ëŠ” ?ˆë¡œ???¸ì‹???™ë°˜?ˆë‹¤. ?˜ëŸ‰?¼ë¡œÂ ?˜ì›???¸ê³„?ëŠ” ?œê³„ê°€ ?†ì—ˆ?? ?°ì£¼???€?œÂ?a href=”http://www.pressian.com/books/article.asp?article_num=50130201170356&Section=02&#8243; target=”_blank”>공상???¬ë¡œ?¡ížŒ ?¸ê°„?€ ?´ì œ ?ê¸° 주위???¸ê³„ë¥?무한???•ìž¥??공간?¼ë¡œ 바라보았?? 마침 ?„메리카 ?€ë¥™ì˜ ?ë?지?”ì? 맞물???´ëŸ¬???˜ëŸ‰???¸ê³„ê´€?€ ?¸ìƒ???ì—†???•ë§ ?¤í˜„??무ë?ë¡??¼ìœ¼?¤ëŠ” ?¸ê°„?¤ì„ ?‘ì‚°?˜ê¸° ?œìž‘?ˆë‹¤.

?´ê²ƒ?€ ê³??°ë¦¬ê°€ ‘?ë³¸ì£¼ì˜’?¼ê³  부르는 ?œë????±ìž¥, 그것?´ë‹¤. ?˜ì?ë§?멈퍼?œëŠ” ê·??±ìž¥ 과정?ì„œ ?”히 간과?˜ê³¤ ?˜ëŠ” ?ˆë¡œ???¸ê³„ê´€???ê·¹????• ??강조?˜ëŠ” 것이?? 그는 ‘?ˆë¡œ???œì–‘ ??°° ? ì•™’?´ë¼ê³ ë‚˜ ????기계???¸ê³„?ì´ ?œêµ¬??출현???„ë©´?ì¸ ?”폐???°ê³„ ë°?고도??관ë¦?조직, 중세???¤ì–‘??기술???€ì²´í•œ ?¨ìˆœ 기술 ?±ê³¼ 결합???˜ë‚˜??권력 복합체ë? 구성?ˆë‹¤ê³?주장?œë‹¤. 그것??<기계??? í™” 2>??부?œì¸ ‘권력???¤ê°???œí?ê³?’?´ë‹¤.

‘?¤ê°???´ë¼ê³?부ë¥?것ì? ??권력 복합체ê? ?¤ì„¯ 개의 ê¼?§“?ìœ¼ë¡??´ë¤„???ˆê¸° ?Œë¬¸?´ë‹¤. 공교ë¡?²Œ?????¤ì„¯ ê¼?§“?ì? 모두 ?ŒíŒŒë²?/a> ‘p’ë¡??œìž‘?œë‹¤. 첫째??권력(power)?´ë‹¤. ?´ê²ƒ???•ì¹˜ 권력?ì„œ ?”폐 권력?¼ë¡œ ?•ìž¥?˜ë©´????개의 ?¤ë¥¸ ?”소?¤ê³¼ 결합?˜ëŠ”?? ?ì‚°??productivity)ê³??´ìœ¤(profit), ?ì‚°(property)??그것?´ë‹¤. 마ì?막으ë¡??´ëŠ” ??많ì? ?¸ê°„ 무리ë¥???권력 ë§??ˆì— ?¬íš?˜ê¸° ?„í•œ ? ì „ ?œë™(publicity)?„Â?a href=”http://www.pressian.com/books/article.asp?article_num=50130201170356&Section=02&#8243; target=”_blank”>?˜ë°˜?œë‹¤. ê·¼ë? ?¸ê³„????’권력???œí?ê³????Šìž„?†ì´ ?•ì‚°?˜ëŠ” 과정??’진보(progress)’??불ë??? ?¥ë?ë¡?²Œ??’진보’ ??‹œ ?ŒíŒŒë²?’p’ë¡??œìž‘?œë‹¤.

권력???œí?곤ì? ê·¼ë????¤ì–´ ?¤ì‹œ 부?œí•œ ?€ ê³ ë???ê±°ë? 기계?? 그러???´ê²ƒ?€ ê³ ë???ê±°ë? 기계ë¥??‡ê³  ?ˆëŠ” 것만?¼ì´??그것ê³??¤ë¥¸ 중요??차이??지?ˆê³  ?ˆë‹¤. ê·?첫째???•ì¹˜ 권력ê³??”폐 권력 ?¬ì´???°í•©?´ë‹¤. ?¬ê¸°?ì„œ ?ˆë¡œ???”소???”폐 경제?? ?´ë¡œ????ê±°ë? 기계????‚¬??? ë??†ëŠ” 경제????™???ˆì— ?¸ê°„?¤ì„ ??•„ë§????ˆê²Œ ?œë‹¤.?€ì¤?/a>?€ ?´ì œ 강제 ?ì‚°ê³?강제 ?Œë¹„???¤ëžŒì¥?쳇바???ˆì— 갇히ê²??œë‹¤.

???¤ë¥¸ 차이??ê·¼ë????•ì¹˜ 권력??민주??êµ??êµ?????•íƒœë¥?취한?¤ëŠ” ?ì´?? ê·¼ë????ëª…ê³??„쟁?¤ì? ?€ì¤‘을 직접?ìœ¼ë¡?êµ?? 권력??복속?œí‚¤????• ???ˆë‹¤. ???ì—??멈퍼?œëŠ” ?„ëž‘?¤ë??ëª…??비판?ìœ¼ë¡?바라보고, ?¬ì‹œ??/a>?ëª…???€?´ì„œ??ì°¨ê????‰ê?ë¥??´ë¦°?? ?´ë“¤ ?ëª…?€ ?˜ë‚˜ê°™ì´ ‘?•ì œë¡œë??°ì˜ ?´ë°©’???½ì†?ˆì?ë§? ê²°ê³¼?ìœ¼ë¡œëŠ” ê±°ë? 기계??부?œê³¼ ?•ìž¥?Â?a href=”http://www.pressian.com/books/article.asp?article_num=50130201170356&Section=02″ target=”_blank”>?¼ì¡°?ˆì„ 뿐이??

멈퍼?œì˜ 문명 비판???¬íšŒì£¼ì˜??촉구?˜ëŠ” 반성

?´ì? ?˜ë©´ 멈퍼?œì˜ ?„ë? 문명 비판??마르?¬ìŠ¤ì£¼ì˜?€ 갈라지??지?ì´ ?•ì—°?˜ê²Œ ?œëŸ¬?œë‹¤. ?°ì„  멈퍼?œëŠ” ê·¼ë?ë¥??ë³¸ì£¼ì˜??경제???´ë™ ?˜ë‚˜ë§Œìœ¼ë¡??˜ì›?˜ì? ?ŠëŠ”?? ??‚¬? ë¬¼ë¡??„식???°ë¥´ë©??ë?구조???í•˜???¸ê³„ê´€??변?”ë? 중요???”인?¼ë¡œ 강조?˜ë©°, ê·¼ë?ë¥?경제 권력ê³??•ì¹˜ 권력, 지배적 ?¸ê³„?ì˜ 복합ì²?’권력???œí?ê³?)ë¡?바라보려 ?œë‹¤.

물론 ?¤ëŠ˜???´ëŸ° 주장?€ ?¤ë¥¸ 많ì? ?¬ìƒê°€?¤ë„ ?™ì˜?˜ëŠ” ?´ìš©?´ë‹¤(가??가?¼í???고진??<?¸ê³„??/a>??구조>(조영?????, ?„서출판b ?´ëƒ„)). ?˜ì?ë§?<기계??? í™” 2> 초판본이 ?˜ì˜¬ ??1970??ë§??´ë„ ?´ê²ƒ?€ ? êµ¬?ì¸ 주장?„에 분명?ˆë‹¤.

그런???¬ì‹¤ ?????€ë¦?지?ì? ?¤ë¥¸ ???ˆë‹¤. 멈퍼?œëŠ” 마르?¬ìŠ¤ì£¼ì˜ë¥??¬í•¨??ê·¼ë? ?¬íšŒì£¼ì˜-?¸ë™?´ë™??ê±°ë? 기계??맞서????ë³´ì?지ë§??¤ì? 그것??강화?˜ëŠ” ??• ë§??ˆë‹¤ê³??µë ¬??비판?œë‹¤. ?´ë“¤?€ ?ì˜ ?¤ì²´ë¥??¨ê??†ì´ ?¬ì°©?˜ì? 못했ê³? 그래??권력 복합체ê? 주창?˜ëŠ” ‘진보’ë¥?무비?ì ?¼ë¡œ ?°ë¼ê°”다. 멈퍼?œëŠ” ?´ë ‡ê²?매섭ê²??‰ê??œë‹¤.

“19?¸ê¸° 초ë????´ëŸ¬???ˆë¡œ???˜ì— ?€??•˜ê¸°ì—???ì‹ ?¤ì´Â ë¬´ê¸°??/a>?˜ë‹¤??것을 발견???¸ë™??계급?€ 지배Â?a href=”http://www.pressian.com/books/article.asp?article_num=50130201170356&Section=02″ target=”_blank”>?˜ë¦¬??/a>?¤ì´ ?„ë‹Œ ?„롤?ˆí?리아 계급???„í•´??기계가 ?´ìš©?˜ëŠ” ?ì‹ ?¤ë§Œ??? í™”?•ì‚¬?Œì£¼?? 무정부주의, 공산주의?•ë? 가지ê³??´ëŸ¬???´ë°?¬ë¡œê¸?? í™”???ë³¸ê°€?? 군사???œì¶œ???€??–ˆ??” (216ìª?

“그러??권력 
?œìŠ¤??/a>???„í•œ ?”ìš± ?¨ê³¼?ì¸ 보호막이 존재?ˆëŠ”?? ?´ëŸ¬??보호막ì? ?¨ì? ?¬ë¡œ?¬íŠ¸?¨ê³¼ 같ì? ?¸ê°„?ì¸ 무정부주의??공산주의?ë§Œ???¸ì‹?ˆë‹¤. ì¦? ?¸ë™??계급???ëª… ?´ë™?€ 권력 복합체의 ?´ë°?¬ë¡œê¸°ì  ?„ì œ?¤ì„ ?œì§„?˜ê²Œ 받아?¤ì???

기계??진보??불ê??¼í•˜ê³??¤ì œë¡??„ì—°?ì¸ 것이?¼ëŠ” 마르?¬ìŠ¤??견해ë¥??µí•´, ?¬íšŒì£¼ì˜???¨ì? ?˜ë‚˜??지배계급에???¤ë¥¸ 지배계급으로의 ?˜ì˜ ?‘도ë¥??œì•ˆ??것에 지?˜ì? ?ŠëŠ”?? ?„ë°˜?ì¸ 메커?ˆì¦˜?€ ?™ì¼?˜ê²Œ ?¨ì•„ ?ˆë‹¤.

?¬íšŒì£¼ì˜??가???¤í˜„ 가?¥í•œ ?´ìƒ?¥ì? ?ëª… 과정 ?ì²´?€?? 그리ê³??¼ë‹¨ ?ëª…???¼ì–´?˜ë©´, ?°ë¦¬ê°€ ?Œë ¨ê³?같ì? êµ???ì„œ 보아?”듯?? ?¤ë¥¸ êµ?? ?´ì— 공통???©ì˜?€ ?…법부???˜í•´ 마련??질서로ë????ˆë¡œ??질서ë¥?구분?˜ê¸°?€ 매우 ?´ë µ??” (473ìª?

?¬ê¸°?ì„œ ?´ëŸ° ?˜ë¬¸???????ˆë‹¤. 그럼 멈퍼?œëŠ” ?„ë? 기술 문명 ?„ì²´ë¥?ê±°ë??˜ëŠ” 것인가? 그는 ?ˆí”¼?¤ì²˜??ë°???문명주의ë¥?주장?˜ëŠ” 것인가? 그렇지 ?Šë‹¤. 기술 ?ì²´?€ ê±°ë? 기계??구분?´ì„œ 봐야 ?œë‹¤. ?°ë¦¬ê°€ 극복?´ì•¼ ??것ì? ‘ê±°ë? 기계’, ì¦?기술???¬íšŒ???¤ë¥¸ ?”소?¤ê³¼ 결합??만든 ?¹ì •??권력 복합체다. 멈퍼???ì‹ ???¤ëª…???¤ì–´ë³´ìž.

“ê±°ë?기술??직접?ì¸ ?ì‚°ë¬¼ë§Œ???°ë¡œ 조사?œë‹¤ë©? ?´ëŸ° 주장, ?´ëŸ° ?½ì†?€ 근거가 분명??것으ë¡??´ë“¤ ?…적?€ 진짜?? 각각???´ìµ?€ ?¥ê¸°ê°„의 ?¸ê°„???œë°˜ 목적 그리ê³??˜ë? ?ˆëŠ” ?í™œ ?•íƒœë¡œë????¼ì–´?“ê³  ë³´ë©´, ?´ë¡ ???¬ì?가 ?†ë‹¤. ê±°ë?기술???¨ê³¼?ì¸ 조직?”의 ?œë°˜ 방식 ê·??´ëŠ 것도, ?˜ì„ ?ˆì•½?˜ê²Œ ?˜ëŠ” ?œë°˜ ?¥ì¹˜ ê·??´ëŠ 것도, ? ì œ??/a>??ê·??´ëŠ 것도 (중략) 무시?˜ê±°?? ?˜ë¬¼ë©?ê·??ë¦¬?ì„œ 거절?˜ê±°???˜ëŠ” ?¼ì´ ?ˆì–´?œëŠ” ???œë‹¤.

그렇?¤ê³  ?´ë„ 거기?ëŠ” ê¼???가지 ?¨ì„œ 조항??붙어?¼ë§Œ ?œë‹¤. 그것?€ 권력 복합체의 ?€ë³€?ë“¤??고의ë¡??„락?œí‚¨ ?¬ì‹¤?¸ë°, ??모든 ?¬í™”??보다 중요???¸ê°„??관?¬ì´ 무시?˜ê±°??말살?˜ì? ?ŠëŠ” 경우?ë§Œ 가치ê? ?ˆëŠ” 것이 ?œë‹¤???¬ì‹¤?´ë‹¤.” (443ìª?

기술 발전??무턱?€ê³?반ë??˜ìž??것도 ?„니ê³? 과거ë¡??˜ëŒ?„ê???길밖???†ë‹¤??것도 ?„니?? 기술 발전보다 ?ìœ„??가치로 “?¸ê°„?ì¸ 균형”(549ìª????ì–´???œë‹¤??것이??

그런??그게 ?½ì?가 ?Šë‹¤. ê±°ë? 기계가 ?¼ë‹¨ ?‘동???œìž‘?˜ë©´, ?Šìž„?†ëŠ” ?ë™??/a>가 지??명제가 ?˜ê¸° ?Œë¬¸?´ë‹¤. ?ë™?”ë? ?œì–´???˜ì? ê±°ë? 기계 ‘?ˆì—?? ?†ë‹¤. ê±°ë? 기계?ê²Œ ?ë™???´ë™???•ì???붕괴ë¥??»í•  뿐이??

“?¬ê¸°?ì„œ ?°ë¦¬??괴테??마법?¬ì˜ 견습???°í™”?ì„œ ?¤ëª…?˜ëŠ” ?ë™?”의 ??모순??직면?˜ê³  ?ˆë‹¤. ?°ë¦¬??문명?€ (중략) ?ë„ë¥?증ê??œí‚¤?„록 ?˜ëŠ” 마법??공식??발견?ˆë‹¤. 그러????방식(?ˆê²¬ê³??¬í›„ 관ë¦???모든 ? ê¸°??과정?ì„œ??분명???ˆì?ë§? ??과정?˜Â?a href=”http://www.pressian.com/books/article.asp?article_num=50130201170356&Section=02&#8243; target=”_blank”>?œí¬ë¥?바꾸거나 ê·?과정???¸ê°„ 기능ê³?목적??충족?œí‚¤ì§€ ?Šì„ ??ê·?과정???•ì??œí‚¤???°ë‘ë¨¸ë¦¬ 마법?¬ì˜ 마력???ƒì–´ë²„ë ¸??

ê²°ê³¼?ìœ¼ë¡??°ë¦¬??견습?ì²˜???ìˆ˜??ë¹ ì?ê¸??œìž‘?˜ê³  ?ˆë‹¤. 교훈?€ 간단?˜ë‹¤. ?ë™??과정???•ì??œí‚¬ ???ˆëŠ” ?˜ì´ ?†ë‹¤ë©? 그리ê³?그것???? „?œí‚¬ ?„요가 ?ˆë‹¤ë©?그것???œìž‘?˜ì? ?ŠëŠ” ?¸ì´ ?«ë‹¤.” (245ìª?

?¸ê°„?€ ?´ë–»ê²??œì–´?¥ì„ ?˜ì°¾?????ˆì„ê¹? ?´ë–»ê²?”?„재??ê±°ë? 기술???œë„?€ 구조”ë¥?”?¸ê°„??규모ë¡?축소”?˜ê³  “?¸ê°„??직접 ?µì œ ?„래”(575ìª? ?“을 ???ˆì„ê¹?

비판??ì² ì??¨ì— 비하ë©? 멈퍼?œì˜ 변?ë¡ ?€ 모호?˜ë‹¤. ê±°ë? 기계???¤íŒ¨(?”즘 ?ìœ¼ë¡?말하ë©? ?íƒœ???¬ì•™)???°ë¥¸ ?€ì¤‘의 각성??기ë?ë¥?거는 것처??보이기도 ?˜ê³ , 1960?„ë????œì°½ 치열?˜ê²Œ ?„ê°œ?˜ë˜ ?™ìƒ?´ë™?ì„œ ?¬ë§??발견?˜ëŠ” 것으ë¡?보이기도 ?œë‹¤.

?˜ì?ë§?멈퍼?œëŠ” ?˜ì™¸ë¡œÂ?a href=”http://www.pressian.com/books/article.asp?article_num=50130201170356&Section=02&#8243; target=”_blank”>?™ê??ì´?? 그는 <기계??? í™”> ?„ì²´ë¥?꿰뚫??메시지가 ê±°ë? 기계ë¥?극복?˜ë ¤???´ë“¤?ê²Œ ?¬ë§??주려??것임??강조?œë‹¤. ê±°ë? 기계??? ë? ì¤??˜ë‚˜ê°€ ê·¼ë??¸ì˜ 기계???¸ê³„?ì´?¼ë©´, ê±°ë? 기계???´ëŸ¬???¸ê³„?ì— 맞선 ?€ì¤‘적 각성???˜í•´ 밑에?œë????ˆë¬¼?´ì§ˆ ???ˆë‹¤???´ì•¼ê¸°ê? ?œë‹¤.

“권력 ?œìŠ¤?œì´ ?°ì„  ?¸ê°„??마음???°ë¬¼?´ë¼ë©? 미래??많ì? 개방??가?¥ì„±??가진다.”(576ìª?

?íƒœ ?¬íšŒì£¼ì˜??출발??- 멈퍼?œì˜ ê±°ë? 기계 비판

<기계??? í™”>???°ë¥´ë©? ?¬íšŒ 변?ì— ?€??기존??지배적 관?ì? ?•ì •?˜ì–´?¼ë§Œ ?œë‹¤. ?´ì œê¹Œì???주된 관?ì? ê·¼ë? 부르주??/a> 문명??모순??발전?˜ëŠ” 가?´ë° ?ˆë¡œ???¬íšŒ 주체?¤ì´ ?±ìž¥??ê·??±ê³¼?¤ì„ ?¸ìˆ˜?œë‹¤??것이?ˆë‹¤. 그러??멈퍼?œì—ê²??´ëŠ” ê±°ë? 기계??? ì?, ?•ìž¥ 과정???¤ë¦„ ?„니?ˆë‹¤.

?„ë? 문명??진정 ?„ìš”??변?ì? ê±°ë? 기계???‘동???•ì??¤ì‹œê³??´ë? ?´ì²´?˜ëŠ” ‘?€?„환’?´ë‹¤. 차축 ?œë???종교?€ 철학??ê³ ë???ê±°ë? 기계ë¥??ˆë¬¼?´ëœ¨?¸ë˜ 것과 같ì? ??• ???€ì¤‘ìš´?™ì„ ?µí•´ ?¤ì‹œ ?¤í˜„?´ì•¼ ?œë‹¤. 좀 ??구체?ìœ¼ë¡?말하ë©? “기계???¸ê³„?ì„ ? ê¸°???¸ê³„?ìœ¼ë¡??€ì²??˜ê³  “기계?€ 컴퓨?°ì— 주어졌던 ?°ì„ ê¶Œì„ 가??ê³ ê??œÂ?a href=”http://www.pressian.com/books/article.asp?article_num=50130201170356&Section=02″ target=”_blank”>?ëª…???¸ê²©??부???˜ëŠ” ?„환???ˆì–´???œë‹¤(554ìª?.

멈퍼?œì—ê²??€???¬íšŒ???µì‹¬ ?ë¦¬???ì—°???ˆë‹¤. 기계???ë¦¬ê°€ ?„니???ëª…???ë¦¬, ? ê¸°ì²´ì˜ ?ë¦¬???°ë¼ ?¬íšŒë¥??¬êµ¬?±í•˜ë©??œë‹¤. ?ì¼?±ì´ ?„니??”?¤ì–‘??(384ìª??? ?ë™?”ê? ?„니??”공동???ìœ¨??(537ìª??? 권력???„니??”충만”(531ìª????¬íšŒ??주된 가치이??목표가 ?˜ì–´???œë‹¤.

멈퍼?œëŠ” ?´ëŸ°Â ë¹„ì „??? êµ¬?ë¡œ???¬ë¡œ?¬íŠ¸?? 모리?? 게디??그리ê³??¨ë¦¬ ?Œë¡œë¥?? ë‹¤. 그리ê³?마르?¬ìŠ¤???¤ì‹œ 불러?¨ë‹¤. ?´ë•Œ??마르?¬ìŠ¤???¤ë¥¸ 무엇보다 <?…일 ?´ë°?¬ë¡œê¸?gt;(ì¹?마르?¬ìŠ¤Â·?„리?œë¦¬???¥ê²”??지?? 박재?????, ì²?…„???´ëƒ„)??마르?¬ìŠ¤, 좁ì? 분업 체계ë¥??˜ì–´??개인???¤ì–‘??가?¥ì„±???ìœ ë¡œì´ ?¤í˜„?˜ëŠ” ?¬íšŒë¥??¼ì›?ˆë˜ 마르?¬ìŠ¤??

멈퍼?œê? ?´ë“¤ ? êµ¬?ë“¤?ê²Œ???’이 ?‰ê???것ì? “금전??보수???€??무ê??? ?ê? ?½ì°½?˜ëŠ” ?€ì¤‘성?¼ë¡œë¶€?°ì˜ ?´ë°©, 직업?ì¸ ?œë™???¤ì–‘?? ?°ì—…??지???ì‚° ?ë„???˜ë„??감속, ?ìœ„???¸ê°„ 기능ê³?문화??가치에 ?€?œÂ?a href=”http://www.pressian.com/books/article.asp?article_num=50130201170356&Section=02&#8243; target=”_blank”>집중??부?œì‹œ?¤ëŠ” ê²? ?•ë?ë¥??¥ë™?ìœ¼ë¡?’?¬í¡???˜ì? ?ŠëŠ” ê²?(543~544ìª? 마ì?ë§?구절?€ ?¤ì—­?¼ë¡œ, ?ëž˜??”?¹ížˆ ?•ë?ë¥??¬íšŒ???¤ì§ˆ?ìœ¼ë¡?’?¬í¡???˜ëŠ” ê²?)?´ì—ˆ?? ?´ê²ƒ?€ 고스?€???„ë? ?íƒœ ?¬íšŒì£¼ì˜ê°€ ?ˆìžë³¸ì£¼??변?ì˜ 목표?´ìž 지?¥ìœ¼ë¡??œì‹œ?˜ëŠ” 바다.

?´ëŸ° 맥락?ì„œ 멈퍼?œì˜ <기계??? í™”> 1, 2권ì? 마르?¬ìŠ¤ ?¬ìƒ???´ë–¤ 측면 그리ê³??¬ë¡œ?¬íŠ¸?¨ê³¼ 모리?¤ë? 관?µí•˜???¬íšŒì£¼ì˜-?„나?¤ìŠ¤???¬ìƒ???¨ì–´ ?ˆë˜ 광맥??발굴?˜ê³  그것???„ë©´???´ì„¸???¬íšŒ 비판?´ë¼ ?????ˆë‹¤. 그렇기에 ?í•œ ??책ì? ?¬íšŒì£¼ì˜???íƒœ???„환???ì›??참조 ??• ????고전?´ê¸°???˜ë‹¤.

/?¥ì„ì¤€ 글로벌?•ì¹˜ê²½ì œ?°êµ¬???ë¬¸?„원
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